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Table 3 Determinants of CHE based on proportionality of income approach

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and its determinants in Kenya slum communities

  Model 2
Variable (N = 8171) 5% 10%
Round:   
  Round 4 (Ref)   
  Round 5 1.37 a(0.16b)** 1.27 (0.17)*
  Round 6 1.49(0.19)*** 1.33(0.19)**
  Round 7 1.27(0.16)* 1.20(0.16)
Slums:   
  Viwandani (Ref)   
  Korogocho 0.41(0.04)*** 0.30(0.03)***
  Dandora 0.49(0.07)*** 0.36(0.06)***
  Mukuru 0.98(0.08) 0.76(0.07)***
  Obunga 1.57(0.15)*** 1.52(0.15)***
  Nyalenda 1.40(0.12)*** 1.17(0.11)*
Income:   
  Lower tertile (Ref)   
  Middle tertile .. ..
  Top tertile .. ..
Expenditure:   
  Lower tertile (Ref)   
  Middle tertile 1.14(0.08)* 1.12(0.08)
  Top tertile 1.65(0.12)*** 1.48(0.12)***
Livelihood:   
  Petty trade, casual (Ref)   
  Formal labor 0.99(0.07) 1.05(0.08)
  Own business 0.91(0.07) 1.02(0.09)
Gender of bread winner:   
  Male 1.11(0.07)* 0.93(0.06)
Working adult in household 0.41(0.03)*** 0.33(0.03)***
Child under 5 years 1.33(0.08)*** 1.38(0.09)***
Age of main income earner:   
  Age < =35 (Ref)   
  35 < Age < =55 1.05(0.07) 1.07(0.8)
  Age >55 1.36(0.18)** 1.57(0.22)***
Duration of stay in slum (years) 1.01(0.003)*** 1.01(0.004)***
Safety net 0.78(0.05)*** 0.78(0.05)***
Shocks 0.94(0.07) 0.93(0.08)
Type of illness:   
  Other (Ref)   
  Diarrhea 0.97(0.11) 0.97(0.12)
  Fever 0.95(0.08) 0.94(0.09)
  Cough 0.88(0.08) 0.90(0.09)
  Headache 0.99(0.09) 0.95(0.09)
  Vomiting 1.32(0.16)** 1.24(0.17)
  Seizure 1.51(0.49) 1.02(0.36)
  Difficult breathing 1.12(0.16) 1.16(0.19)
  Measles 1.14(0.31) 1.20(0.33)
  Injury 1.43(0.29)* 1.57(0.35)**
Care sought for illness:   
  No ill person/no care sought (Ref)   
  Ill/no care sought 1.17(0.16) 1.05(0.16)
  Ill/care sought 1.43(0.12)*** 1.22(0.11)**
Place where care was sought:   
  Other (Ref)   
  Public hospital 2.32(0.27)*** 2.05(0.25)***
  Public clinic 1.08(0.14) 0.78(0.12)*
  Private hospital 2.31(0.43)*** 1.86(0.37)***
  Private clinic 1.51(0.23)*** 1.27(0.22)
  Mission hospital 2.59(1.03)** 2.37(1.00)**
  Mission clinic 1.19(0.29) 0.95(0.28)
  1. Notes: Dependent variable =1 if the household experienced catastrophic health expenditure. (a) reports the odds ratio. (b) reports the standard error. *, **, *** indicate significance at 10, 5 and 1% level respectively. Model 2: CHE is based on OOP as a proportion of household income.