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Table 2 Determinants of CHE based on the WHO’s Xu [1] approach

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and its determinants in Kenya slum communities

  Model 1A
Variable (N = 8171) 10% 20% 30%
Round:    
Round 4 (Ref)    
Round 5 0.89a (0.19)b 0.88 (0.28) 0.96 (0.44)
Round 6 1.25 (0.28) 1.16 (0.38) 1.31 (0.63)
Round 7 0.88 (0.20) 0.81 (0.27) 1.02 (0.49)
Slum:    
Viwandani (Ref)    
Korogocho 1.01 (0.16) 1.09(0.24) 1.64 (0.52)
Dandora 0.99 (0.23) 0.64(0.23) 0.95 (0.45)
Mukuru 1.09 (0.17) 0.71(0.18) 0.71 (0.26)
Obunga 0.57 (0.11)*** 0.61 (0.17)* 0.68 (0.26)
Nyalenda 0.68 (0.12)** 0.43 (0.12)*** 0.36 (0.15)**
Income 1 :    
Lower tertile (Ref)    
Middle tertile 0.91 (0.12) 0.72 (0.14)* 0.87 (0.24)
Top tertile 0.84(0.11) 0.85 (0.16) 1.25 (0.33)
Expenditure:    
Lower tertile (Ref)    
Middle tertile 0.87 (0.11) 0.86 (0.18) 0.88 (0.26)
Top tertile 1.32 (0.18)** 1.85 (0.36)*** 2.66 (0.70)***
Livelihood:    
Petty trade, casual (Ref)    
Formal labor 0.70 (0.10)*** 0.70 (0.14)* 0.44 (0.14)***
Own business 0.73 (0.11)** 0.65 (0.15)* 0.39 (0.13)***
Main bread winner is male 1.11 (0.12) 1.05 (0.17) 1.24 (0.28)
Working adult in household 0.82 (0.10) 0.54 (0.11)*** 0.51 (0.14)**
Child under 5 years 1.07 (0.12) 0.89 (0.15) 0.71 (0.16)
Age of main income earner:    
35 < =Age (Ref)    
35 < Age < =55 1.07 (0.13) 1.08 (0.19) 1.17 (0.28)
Age > 55 1.56 (0.32)** 2.11 (0.56)*** 1.87 (0.68)*
Duration of stay in slum 1.02 (0.01)*** 1.02 (0.01)** 1.02 (0.01)*
Safety net 0.63 (0.08)*** 0.60 (0.11)*** 0.50 (0.13)***
Shocks 1.08 (0.14) 1.17 (0.23) 0.97 (0.27)
Type of illness    
Other (Ref)    
Diarrhea 0.93 (0.19) 0.76 (0.25) 0.69 (0.35)
Fever 1.05 (0.16) 1.15 (0.26) 0.60 (0.20)
Cough 0.73 (0.11)** 0.45 (0.12)*** 0.67 (0.23)
Headache 0.82 (0.12) 0.90 (0.20) 1.15 (0.36)
Vomiting 1.27 (0.26) 1.03 (0.34) 0.78 (0.41)
Seizure 1.80 (0.77) 1.71 (0.99) 2.23(1.52)
Difficult breathing 1.31 (0.29) 1.45 (0.46) 1.00 (0.44)
Measles 1.27 (0.55) 2.42 (1.23)* 1.88 (1.44)
Injury 2.15 (0.57)*** 2.68 (0.91)*** 2.05 (0.95)
Care sought for illness    
No ill person/no care sought (Ref)    
Ill/no care sought 1.99 (0.47)*** 2.96 (0.93)*** 1.24 (0.78)
Ill/care sought 1.82 (0.27)*** 1.70 (0.37)** 1.96 (0.59)**
Place care was sought:    
Other (Ref)    
Public hospital 3.96 (0.71)*** 4.24 (1.07)*** 6.61 (2.14)***
Public clinic 0.66 (0.16)* 0.72 (0.27) 0.65 (0.36)
Private hospital 4.07 (0.99)*** 2.87 (1.06)*** 3.41 (1.61)***
Private clinic 1.73 (0.40)** 1.78 (0.61)* 1.72 (0.78)
Mission hospital 2.82 (1.33)** 3.35 (2.01)** 1.23 (1.32)
Mission clinic 0.95 (0.37) 0.76 (0.48) 1.01 (0.78)
  1. Notes: (a) Reports the odds ratio. (b) Reports the standard error. *, **, *** indicate significance at 10, 5, and 1% level respectively.
  2. In this Model 1A we use a household multiplier β = 0.41, and the 45th – 55th percentile to compute the subsistence expenditure. (2) The correlation between income group and expenditure group variables is 0.24.