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Table 3 Results of ordinary least squares regression model for the health utilities index

From: Unexplained health inequality – is it unfair?

  Coefficient (95% CI) p-value
Age (years, reference: 18-44)   0.000
 45-64 -0.044(-0.057, -0.030) 0.000
 65+ -0.013(-0.041, 0.015) 0.362
Male -0.001(-0.012, 0.010) 0.890
Marital status (reference: single)   0.064
 Married or common law partner -0.005(-0.010, 0.019) 0.554
 Separated, divorced, or widowed -0.014(-0.034, 0.005) 0.155
Race (reference: White)   0.342
 Other -0.006(-0.028, 0.016) 0.601
 Black -0.016(-0.005, 0.037) 0.127
 Asian -0.011(-0.046, 0.024) 0.546
Foreign born -0.006(-0.013, 0.026) 0.515
Smoking (reference: never smoked)   0.059
 Former smoker and started smoking at or after 18 years -0.052(-0.107, 0.002) 0.060
 Former smoker and started smoking before 18 years -0.086(-0.170, 0.003) 0.043
 Current smoker and started smoking at or after 18 years -0.015(-0.066, 0.036) 0.558
 Current smoker and started smoking before 18 years -0.070(-0.140, 0.000) 0.050
BMI (reference: normal weight)   0.053
 Underweight -0.166(-0.283, 0.048) 0.006
 Overweight -0.025(-0.084, 0.034) 0.402
 Obese -0.086(-0.084, 0.040) 0.485
Frequency of physical activity (reference; regular)   0.000
 Occasional -0.012(-0.024, 0.001) 0.069
 Infrequent -0.083(-0.099, -0.066) 0.000
Household income (reference: lowest income quintile)   0.122
 Lower middle income quintile -0.021(-0.009, 0.050) 0.169
 Middle income quintile -0.038(-0.010, 0.067) 0.009
 Higher middle income quintile -0.036(-0.008, 0.064) 0.011
 Highest middle income quintile -0.037(-0.008, 0.065) 0.011
 Income missing -0.027(-0.001, 0.056) 0.056
Education (reference: less than high school)   0.026
 High school graduate -0.007(-0.035, 0.049) 0.737
 Non-university/college certificate -0.032(-0.013, 0.078) 0.162
 University/college certificate -0.029(-0.013, 0.070) 0.176
Has regular medical doctor -0.021(-0.036,-0.006) 0.005
Presence of self-reported unmet need -0.110(-0.133,-0.087) 0.000
Treatment for high blood pressure in the last 12 months (reference: no treatment)   0.000
 Received treatment -0.023(-0.081, 0.034) 0.424
 No high blood pressure -0.020(-0.034, 0.073) 0.475
Medication for asthma in the last 12 months (reference: no medication)   0.008
 Received medication -0.020(-0.076,-0.004) 0.031
 No asthma -0.000(-0.026, 0.026) 0.999
Has pharmaceutical insurance -0.032(-0.051, 0.013) 0.001
Health insurance type (US only, reference: no insurance)   0.000
 Medicaid only -0.092(-0.146,-0.039) 0.001
 Non-Medicaid public only including Medicare -0.052(-0.092,-0.013) 0.010
 Private plus public including Medicare -0.038(-0.074, 0.001) 0.043
 Private only -0.035(-0.008, 0.062) 0.010
Smoking x household income (reference: never smoked x lowest income quintile)   0.024
 Former smoker and started smoking at or after 18 years   
  x Lower middle income quintile 0.011(-0.063, 0.085) 0.770
  x Middle income quintile 0.038(-0.024, 0.101) 0.225
  x Higher middle income quintile 0.050(-0.010, 0.111) 0.101
  x Highest middle income quintile 0.062(0.000, 0.124) 0.050
  x Income missing 0.086(-0.003, 0.122) 0.064
 Former smoker and started smoking before 18 years   
  x Lower middle income quintile 0.041(-0.059, 0.141) 0.418
  x Middle income quintile 0.062(-0.035, 0.160) 0.210
  x Higher middle income quintile 0.105(0.015, 0.194) 0.023
  x Highest middle income quintile 0.094(0.004, 0.184) 0.041
  x Income missing -0.003(-0.110, 0.105) 0.962
 Current smoker and started smoking at or after 18 years   
  x Lower middle income quintile 0.027(-0.035, 0.088) 0.396
  x Middle income quintile -0.022(-0.085, 0.040) 0.487
  x Higher middle income quintile -0.010(-0.072, 0.053) 0.757
  x Highest middle income quintile 0.025(-0.033, 0.084) 0.393
  x Income missing 0.002(-0.061, 0.065) 0.955
 Current smoker and started smoking before 18 years   
  x Lower middle income quintile 0.063(-0.016, 0.142) 0.116
  x Middle income quintile 0.002(-0.100, 0.103) 0.976
  x Higher middle income quintile 0.027(-0.058, 0.112) 0.531
  x Highest middle income quintile 0.094(-0.007, 0.180) 0.034
  x Income missing 0.002(-0.041, 0.141) 0.282
BMI x education (reference: normal weight x less than high school)   0.005
 Underweight   
   x High school graduate 0.108(-0.038, 0.255) 0.147
  x Non-university/college certificate 0.159(-0.021, 0.340) 0.083
  x University/college certificate 0.176(-0.052, 0.301) 0.006
 Overweight   
  x High school graduate 0.051(-0.012, 0.113) 0.112
  x Non-university/college certificate 0.014(-0.051, 0.080) 0.665
  x University/college certificate 0.022(-0.040, 0.083) 0.490
 Obese   
  x High school graduate -0.001(-0.068, 0.067) 0.985
  x Non-university/college certificate -0.051(-0.128, 0.025) 0.190
  x University/college certificate 0.013(-0.051, 0.078) 0.683
Constant 0.919(0.839, 1.000) 0.000
Sample size 4328  
Adjusted R-squared 0.258  
  1. Data source: Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH).
  2. CI: confidence interval; BMI: body mass index.
  3. P-value for each variable category is from t-test; p-value for the reference category is from F-test for all categories of each variable.
  4. Analysis is weighted. Standard errors are adjusted for the complex survey design.