Magnitude of health inequality and health inequity estimated by the direct and indirect fairness standardization. Data source: Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH). Analysis is weighted. Standard errors are adjusted for the complex survey design. Gini coefficient takes values between zero (most equal) and one (most unequal). The use of the direct standardization implicitly regards unexplained variation in inequality as ethically acceptable, and the use of the indirect standardization implicitly regards it as unfair.