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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of households by their health insurance status

From: Refusal to enrol in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme: is affordability the problem?

Characteristic Household health insurance status   F-test/Pearson’s χ 2a
Uninsured (n=1,117) Partially insured (n=620) Fully insured (n=681) Total (n=2,418)
Household size & composition
  Mean age of household members (years)b 25.71 (11.5) 24.49 (10.5) 31.68 (18.2) 27.08 (14.2) 53.48***
  No. of children under5 years (mean) 0.67 (0.8) 0.85 (0.9) 0.47 (0.7) 0.66 (0.8) 33.84***
  No. of children between 5–17 years (mean) 1.66 (1.7) 1.83 (1.6) 1.32 (1.4) 1.61 (1.6) 17.88***
  No. of ≥ 70 years in household (mean) 0.11 (0.3) 0.21 (0.5) 0.19 (0.4) 0.16 (0.4) 14.03***
  No. of formal sector workers in household (mean) 0.09 (0.3) 0.12 (0.4) 0.18 (0.4) 0.12 (0.4) 11.21***
  No. of premium paying adults in household (mean) 2.10 (1.3) 2.36 (1.3) 1.62 (1.1) 2.03 (1.3) 60.76***
  No. with secondary educ. or higher (mean) 0.17 (0.5) 0.31 (0.7) 0.37 (0.7) 0.27 (0.6) 24.38***
Health status      
  Household illness per capita (6mths) 0.28 (0.6) 0.46 (0.6) 0.64 (1.0) 0.43 (0.8) 48.25***
  Household with a least one chronic illness (%) 4.74 10.81 14.68 9.20 53.48***
Household/Head characteristics      
Residence (%)      
  Rural 47.81 39.52 33.70 41.73 35.94***
  Urban 52.19 60.48 66.23 58.27  
Sex of head (%)      
  Male 81.65 69.84 66.67 74.40 58.96***
  Female 18.35 30.16 33.33 25.60  
Marital status of household head (%)      
  Never married 8.77 1.61 6.02 6.16 48.55***
  Married/in-union 76.54 78.23 72.25 75.77  
  Divorced/widowed 14.68 20.16 21.73 18.07  
Education of household head (%)      
  No formal education 45.03 42.90 32.01 40.82 65.14***
  Primary 13.34 11.29 11.60 12.32  
  Junior secondary/middle school 35.09 37.10 40.09 37.01  
  Senior secondary or higher education 6.54 8.71 16.30 9.84  
Sector of employment of household head (%)      
  Unemployed 4.57 7.58 10.43 6.99 54.71***
  Formal 6.80 6.77 13.51 8.68  
  Informal 88.63 85.65 76.06 84.33  
% of household heads belonging to social groups 28.65 35.65 39.65 33.54 24.62***
Socio-economic quintile (%)      
  First 24.17 19.68 13.51 20.02 82.72***
  Second 21.13 22.90 15.57 20.02  
  Third 19.61 22.42 18.36 19.99  
  Fourth 17.37 20.32 24.08 20.02  
  Fifth 17.73 14.68 28.49 19.98  
Community/Health system factors      
Distance to nearest health facility (%)      
  <2 kilometres 55.51 67.42 72.25 63.28 93.59***
  Between 2–5 kilometres 22.65 21.29 21.00 21.84  
  >5 kilometres 21.84 11.29 6.75 14.89  
District      
  Savelugu-Nanton 40.82 32.74 22.17 33.50 75.40***
  Asutifi 27.31 34.68 34.58 33.50  
  Kwaebibirem 31.87 32.24 35.24 33.00  
  1. Source: Household survey, 2011.
  2. Notes: aF-test for continuous variables (test of means) and Pearson’s chi-square (χ2) for categorical variables. Test of statistical significance: ***p<0.01.
  3. bStandard deviations of continuous variables in parentheses (…).