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Table 3 Health risk, status and service utilization characteristics of sample, by sex

From: Exploring sex differences in drug use, health and service use characteristics among young urban crack users in Brazil

  Men(n = 124)N (%) Women(n = 35)N (%) Test statistic χ2 p-value
Sexual Risks     
Had sex without a condom [30] 75 (60.5) 22 (62.9) 0.0646 0.799
Had sex in exchange for drugs in [30] 5 (4.0) 10 (28.6) 19.2377*** 0.000
Health status     
Drug overdose [30] 8 (6.5) 1 (2.9) 0.6257 0.429
Injection drug use (lifetime) 2 (1.6) 0 (0.0) 0.5717 0.450
Oral sores/injuries [30] 18 (14.8) 5 (14.3) 0.0048 0.945
Ever tested for HIV 27 (22.3) 26 (76.5) 34.5957*** 0.000
HIV + (serology) 5 (4.1) 6 (18.9) 7.8139** 0.005
Ever tested for Hep C 9 (7.6) 18 (60.0) 43.9874*** 0.000
Hep C + (HCVAB serology) 0 (−) 1 (3.0) 3.7210 0.054
Hep B serology 17 (13.9) 9 (28.1) 3.6379 0.056
Hep A serology 99 (81.2) 29 (90.6) 1.6227 0.203
Physical health problems [[30]] 52 (42.6) 16 (45.7) 1.0754 0.584
Received medical attentionb 7 (12.7) 5 (31.3) 3.0277 0.082
Would like to receive medical attentionb 40 (78.4) 12 (75.0) 3.1357 0.077
Self-rated physical healtha    0.5902 0.422
‘Good’ or better 49 (41.5) 12 (34.3)   
Mental health problems [[30]] 58 (46.8) 15 (42.9) 0.8137 0.666
Received medical attentionb 1 (1.75) 0 (−) 0.2491 0.618
Would like to receive medical attentionb 38 (66.7) 10 (71.4) 0.1164 0.733
Self-rated mental health    4.4885* 0.034
‘Good’ or better 63 (52.9) 11 (32.4)   
Service utilization     
Accessed social, health or drug treatment services [30] 37 (29.8) 20 (57.1) 8.8485** 0.003
Type of service [[30]]c     
Social services 24 (19.5) 16 (45.7) 9.8937** 0.002
Health services 12 (10.4) 8 (22.9) 4.2299* 0.040
Drug treatment service used [30] 3 (3.2) 2 (6.5) 0.6654 0.415
Would use service for DU’s, if available. 98 (79.0) 27 (77.1) 0.2578 0.879
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  2. amissing values.
  3. bof those who reported problems.
  4. Cincludes multiple responses. [30]: in the last 30 days