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Table 1 Descriptive analysis: stratified by income status and patterns of quality of care

From: Do low-income coronary artery bypass surgery patients have equal opportunity to access excellent quality of care and enjoy good outcome in Taiwan?

   Income level Patterns of care
  All Non-poor Poor p-value Not excellent Excellent p-value
  (n=10,320) (n=10196) (n=124) (n=9,142) (n=1,178)
Hospital-level        
Accreditation status, n (%)     0.6392    <0.0001
Medical center 6955(67.39) 6869(67.37) 86(69.35)   6395(69.95) 560(47.54)  
Not medical center 3365(32.61) 3327(32.63) 38(30.65)   2747(30.05) 618(52.46)  
Ownership, n (%)     0.5134    0.4790
Public hospital 3706(35.91) 3658 (35.88) 48 (38.71)   3272(35.79) 434(36.84)  
Not public hospital 6614(64.09) 6538 (64.12) 76 (61.29)   5870(64.21) 744(63.16)  
Hospital service volume, mean (S.D.) 147.56(92.45) 147.83(92.53) 124.90(82.40) 0.0060 151.12(90.68) 119.89(101.03) 0.0001
Hospital risk-adjusted infection rate (%), mean (S.D.) 1.31(1.83) 1.31(1.82) 1.43(2.13) 0.5238 1.40(1.86) 0.57(1.25) 0.0001
Hospital risk-adjusted mortality rate (%), mean (S.D.) 5.41%(5.53) 5.39(5.40) 7.48(12.10) 0.0504 5.79(5.61) 2.45(3.68) 0.0001
Surgeon-level        
Surgeon´s gender, n (%)     0.1783    0.0003
Female 287(2.78) 286(2.81) 1 (0.81)   235(2.57) 52(4.41)  
Male 10027(97.22) 9904(97.19) 123 (99.19)   8901(97.43) 1126(95.59)  
Surgeon´s age, mean (S.D.) 44.46(7.65) 44.48(7.65) 42.77(6.82) 0.0134 44.48(7.63) 44.29(7.79) 0.4244
Surgeon service volume, mean (S.D.) 50.38(34.65) 50.46(34.66) 44.40(32.94) 0.0439 50.12(33.46) 52.46(42.70) 0.0285
Surgeon risk-adjusted infection rate (%), mean (S.D.) 1.28(3.18) 1.28(3.18) 1.27(2.76) 0.9568 1.39(3.31) 0.50(1.63) 0.0001
Surgeon risk-adjusted mortality rate (%), mean (S.D.) 4.89(7.31) 4.88 (7.24) 6.40(11.71) 0.0236 5.29(7.53) 1.86(4.30) 0.0001
Patient-level        
Age, mean (S.D.) 65.35(10.95) 65.40(10.93) 61.38(11.74) 0.0001 65.44(10.96) 64.65(10.84) 0.0187
Gender, n (%)     0.1289    0.1504
Female 2424(23.49) 2402(23.56) 22(17.74)   2167(23.70) 257(21.82)  
Male 7896(76.51) 7794(76.44) 102(82.26)   6975(76.30) 921(78.18)  
CCI, n (%)     0.0001    0.6394
<=1 5453(52.84) 5412(53.08) 41(33.06)   4823(52.76) 630(53.48)  
2+ 4867(47.16) 4784(46.92) 83(66.94)   4319(47.24) 548(46.52)  
Number of vessels obstructed, n (%)     0.5094    0.0001
1 4278(41.45) 4223(41.42) 55(44.35)   3634(39.75) 644(54.67)  
2+ 6042(58.55) 5973(58.58) 69(55.65)   5508(60.25) 534(45.33)  
Patterns of quality of care        
Not excellent, n (%) 9142(88.59) 9025(88.52) 117(94.35) 0.0421    
Excellent, n (%) 1178(11.41) 1171(11.48) 7(5.65)     
Inpatient mortality, n (%) 550(5.33) 535 (5.25) 15(12.10) 0.0007 519(5.68) 31(2.63) 0.0001
  1. x2 test t-test.