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Table 4 Effects of health spending and different kinds of insurances on household impoverishment (N = 3333)

From: The influence of the rural health security schemes on health utilization and household impoverishment in rural China: data from a household survey of western and central China

  Poverty Indicators
  Household in poverty n (%) (a, b) Household impoverished by health spending (HIHS) n (%) (c, d) HIHS prevented by schemes n (%) (e, f) Poverty gap (%) (g) Intensity of medical impoverishment (IMI) (%) (h) Proportion of IMI reduced by schemes (%) (i)
Original state (Pre-payment) 374 (11.2) (a0, b0) Reference (c0, d0)   3.5 (g0) Reference (h0)  
Post-payment       
   -No reimbursement 646 (19.4) (a1, b1) 272 (8.2) (c1, d1) Reference (e0, f0) 7.5 (g1) 4.0 (h1) Reference (i0)
   -Reimbursement by NRCMS 625 (18.8) (a2, b2) 251 (7.6) (c2, d2) 21 (7.7) (e1, f1) 7.1 (g2) 3.6 (h2) 10.0 (i1)
   -Reimbursement by NRCMS + MFA 624 (18.7) (a3, b3) 250 (7.5) (c3, d3) 22 (8.1) (e2, f2) 7.1 (g3) 3.6 (h3) 10.0 (i2)
   -Reimbursement by all insurancesΔ 624 (18.7) (a4, b4) 250 (7.5) (c4, d4) 22 (8.1) (e3, f3) 7.1 (g4) 3.6 (h4) 10.0 (i3)
  1. Note: Δ: all insurances included NRCMS+MFA+private insurance
  2. †: significant at 5%;
  3. Examples of calculation:
  4. b0 = (a0/N) ×100%; b1 = (a1/N) ×100%; b2 = (a2/N) ×100%; b3 = (a3/N) ×100%; b4 = (a4/N) ×100%; c1 = a1-a0; c2 = a2-a0; c3 = a3-a0; c4 = a4-a0; d1 = (c1/N) ×100%; d2 = (c2/N) ×100%; d3 = (c3/N) ×100%; d4 = (c4/N) ×100%; e1 = c2-c1; e2 = c3-c1; e3 = c4-c1; f1 = (e1/c1)×100%; f2 = (e2/c1)×100%; f3 = (e3/c1)×100%; h1 = g1-g0; h2 = g2-g0; h3 = g3-g0; h4 = g4-g0; i1 = (h2-h1)/h1×100%; i2 = (h3-h1)/h1×100%; i3 = (h4-h1)/h1×100%.