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Table 3 Bivariate Odds Ratios for variables tested for association with diabetes among women

From: Gender-specific epidemiology of diabetes: a representative cross-sectional study

Variable n % OR (95% CI OR) p value
DEMOGRAPHIC      
Age group      
   18 to 39 years 11/861 1.3 1.00   
   40 to 59 years 34/677 5.1 3.99 (1.9 – 8.3) 0.001
   60 years and over 75/529 14.2 11.10 (5.66 – 22.31) <0.001
Area of residence      
   Western suburbs 53/952 5.6 1.00   
   Northern suburbs 67/1115 6.0 1.08 (0.73 – 1.59) 0.76
Highest education level obtained      
   Secondary 80/1043 7.6 1.00   
   Trade/Apprentice/Certificate/Diploma 29/675 4.3 0.56 (0.35 – 0.88) 0.01
   Bachelor degree or higher 5/239 2.0 0.27 (0.10 – 0.71) 0.005
Gross annual household income      
   Up to $20,000 66/536 12.4 1.00   
   $20,001–40,000 22/482 4.6 0.37 (0.22 – 0.62) <0.001
   $40,001–60,000 8/409 2.0 0.16 (0.07 – 0.35) <0.001
   More than $60,000 10/493 1.9 0.16 (0.08 – 0.34) <0.001
   Not stated 15/152 9.6 0.80 (0.43 – 1.49) 0.55
Country of birth      
   Australia 67/1477 4.5 1.00   
   UK or Ireland 36/334 10.6 2.38 (1.52 – 3.69) <0.001
   South-Eastern/Eastern Europe 13/153 8.5 1.87 (0.96 – 3.59) 0.07
   Asia, Other 2/88 2.8 - - -
Marital status      
   Married or living with partner 73/1277 5.7 1.00   
   Separated or divorced 14/178 7.9 1.38 (0.73 – 2.57) 0.37
   Widowed 27/182 15.1 2.60 (1.58 – 4.24) <0.001
   Never married 6/410 1.5 0.26 (0.10 – 0.62) <0.001
Work status      
   Full time employed 9/472 2.0 1.00   
   Part time or casual employed 11/521 2.0 1.11 (0.42 – 2.93) 0.998
   Home duties or retired 92/831 11.1 5.81 (2.81 – 12.43) <0.001
   Unemployed 3/68 4.2 - - -
   Student/Other 3/145 2.1 - - -
SELF REPORTED RISK FACTORS      
Smoking status      
   Non smoker 61/1070 5.7 1.00   
   Ex-smoker 39/543 7.2 1.26 (0.81 – 1.94) 0.32
   Current smoker 18/443 4.1 0.71 (0.40 – 1.25) 0.27
Alcohol risk      
   Non drinker, no risk 60/552 10.9 1.00   
   Low risk 53/1398 3.8 0.35 (0.23 – 0.52) <0.001
   Intermediate to very high risk 3/99 3.3 - - -
Family history of diabetes      
   No 58/1313 4.4 1.00   
   Yes 62/754 6.6 1.86 (1.27 – 2.74) 0.001
Family history of heart disease      
   No 46/933 4.9 1.00   
   Yes 75/1134 8.3 1.34 (0.91 – 1.99) 0.15
Family history of stroke      
   No 63/1277 4.9 1.00   
   Yes 58/790 7.3 1.49 (1.01 – 2.18) 0.04
Physical activity – sufficient time      
(at least 150 minutes of walking, moderate or vigorous physical activity per week)
   No/Insufficient physical activity 71/10070 6.6 1.00   
   Sufficient physical activity 51/991 5.1 0.76 (0.53 – 1.11) 0.15
MEASURED RISK FACTORS      
Body Mass Index      
   Acceptable 13/803 1.7 1.00   
   Overweight 31/618 5.1 3.10 (1.55 – 6.30) <0.001
   Obese 73/616 11.8 7.32 (3.90 – 13.99) <0.001
Waist:hip ratio (>1.0 men, >0.85 women)      
   No 45/1553 2.9 1.00   
   Yes 76/513 14.8 5.11 (3.43 – 7.63) <0.001
High blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg)      
   No 50/1568 3.2 1.00   
   Yes 70/499 14.1 4.40 (2.97 – 6.52) <0.001
High total cholesterol (≥ 5.5 mmol/L)      
   No 73/1277 5.7 1.00   
   Yes 46/759 6.1 1.06 (0.71 – 1.58) 0.84
CO-MORBIDITIES      
Cardiovascular disease (ever been told by a doctor)
   No 86/1951 4.4 1.00   
   Yes 35/113 30.6 7.03 (4.44 – 11.1) <0.001
Mental health disorder (ever been told by a doctor)
   No 82/1695 4.8 1.00   
   Yes 38/357 10.7 2.20 (1.44 – 3.01) <0.001
COPD (ever been told by a doctor)      
   No 90/2465 6.1 1.00   
   Yes 31/602 5.1 0.84 (0.54 – 1.30) 0.47
Asthma (ever been told by a doctor)      
   No 98/1781 5.5 1.00   
   Yes 23/286 8.0 1.46 (0.89 – 2.39) 0.15
  1. OR Odds Ratio; CI Confidence Intervals