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Table 2 Bivariate Odds Ratios for variables tested for association with diabetes among men

From: Gender-specific epidemiology of diabetes: a representative cross-sectional study

Variable n % OR (95% CI OR) p value
DEMOGRAPHIC      
Age group      
   18 to 39 years 12/898 1.3 1.00   
   40 to 59 years 51/662 7.7 5.77 (2.95 – 11.50) <0.001
   60 years and over 80/428 18.8 13.99 (7.32 – 27.32) <0.001
Area of residence      
   Western suburbs 65/900 7.3 1.00   
   Northern suburbs 77/1088 7.1 0.98 (0.69 – 1.40) 0.98
Highest education level obtained      
   Secondary 48/709 6.8 1.00   
   Trade/Apprentice/Certificate/Diploma 78/966 8.1 1.19 (0.81 – 1.76) 0.40
   Bachelor degree or higher 8/235 3.6 0.50 (0.22 – 1.12) 0.10
Gross annual household income      
   Up to $20,000 51/366 14.0 1.00   
   $20,001–40,000 49/526 9.4 0.67 (0.43 – 1.03) 0.07
   $40,001–60,000 19/490 3.9 0.28 (0.16 – 0.49) <0.001
   More than $60,000 11/499 2.3 0.16 (0.08 – 0.32) <0.001
   Not stated 11/106 10.6 0.74 (0.35 – 1.54) 0.49
Country of birth      
   Australia 81/1389 5.8 1.00   
   UK or Ireland 31/312 10.1 1.70 (1.08 – 2.68) 0.02
   South-Eastern/Eastern Europe 25/179 13.8 2.39 (1.45 – 3.94) <0.001
   Asia, Other 5/104 5.0 0.82 (0.29 – 2.17) 0.85
Marital status      
   Married or living with partner 112/1249 9.0 1.00   
   Separated or divorced 16/152 10.7 1.17 (0.65 – 2.09) 0.67
   Widowed 6/50 12.5 1.34 (0.50 – 3.34) 0.68
   Never married 8/529 1.4 0.17 (0.08 – 0.36) <0.001
Work status      
   Full time employed 42/1065 4.0 1.00   
   Part time or casual employed 13/207 6.1 1.59 (0.80 – 3.13) 0.21
   Unemployed 3/105 2.7 0.72 (0.18 – 2.49) 0.79
   Home duties or retired 70/409 17.0 4.34 (2.86 – 6.60) <0.001
   Student/Other 13/187 6.9 1.76 (0.88 – 3.47) 0.12
SELF REPORTED RISK FACTORS      
Smoking status      
   Non smoker 41/839 4.9 1.00   
   Ex-smoker 74/600 12.4 2.52 (1.67 – 3.82) <0.001
   Current smoker 27/542 5.0 1.02 (0.60 – 1.72) 0.96
Alcohol risk      
   Non drinker, no risk 122/1597 7.6 1.00   
   Low risk 11/233 4.8 0.62 (0.31 – 1.20) 0.17
   Intermediate to very high risk 9/145 6.4 0.81 (0.38 – 1.69) 0.68
Family history of diabetes      
   No 74/1398 5.3 1.00   
   Yes 69/590 11.7 2.21 (1.55 – 3.15) <0.001
Family history of heart disease      
   No 76/1025 7.5 1.00   
   Yes 66/962 6.9 0.93 (0.65 – 1.32) 0.72
Family history of stroke      
   No 98/1342 7.3 1.00   
   Yes 44/645 6.9 0.93 (0.64 – 1.37) 0.79
Physical activity – sufficient time      
(at least 150 minutes of walking, moderate or vigorous physical activity per week)
   No/Insufficient physical activity 78/848 9.0 1.00   
   Sufficient physical activity 66/1136 5.8 0.61 (0.43 – 0.85) 0.004
MEASURED RISK FACTORS      
Body Mass Index      
   Acceptable 16/589 2.8 1.00   
   Overweight 55/868 6.3 2.33 (1.29 – 4.28) 0.004
   Obese 72/515 13.9 5.15 (2.88 – 9.33) <0.001
   Underweight 0/15 - - - -
Waist:hip ratio (>1.0 men, >0.85 women)      
   No 110/1834 6.0 1.00   
   Yes 32/153 20.9 3.49 (2.22 – 5.45) <0.001
High blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg)      
   No 64/1401 4.6 1.00   
   Yes 78/586 13.3 2.91 (2.04 – 4.17) <0.001
High total cholesterol (≥ 5.5 mmol/L)      
   No 104/1274 8.2 1.00   
   Yes 37/682 5.4 0.66 (0.44 – 0.99) 0.05
CO-MORBIDITIES      
Cardiovascular disease (ever been told by a doctor)
   No 111/1849 6.0 1.0   
   Yes 32/137 23.1 3.89 (2.47 – 6.10) <0.001
Mental health disorder (ever been told by a doctor)
   No 127/1792 7.1 1.00   
   Yes 15/185 7.9 1.14 (0.63 – 2.05) 0.74
COPD (ever been told by a doctor)      
   No 106/1338 7.9 1.00   
   Yes 37/648 5.6 0.72 (0.48 – 1.08) 0.11
Asthma (ever been told by a doctor)      
   No 124/1773 7.0 1.00   
   Yes 18/213 8.5 1.21 (0.70 – 2.07) 0.56
  1. OR Odds Ratio; CI Confidence Intervals