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Table 4 Number of smokers and non-smokers (n) and smoking prevalence (%) (females)

From: Changes in smoking prevalence among first- and second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany – an analysis of the 2005 Microcensus

  Age in years 1st generation
(total)
2nd generation native-born Germans p-values1 1st generation by duration of residence
          0–15 16–31 ≥ 32 p-values2
   n % n % n %   n % n % n %  
High level of education                
  18–24 75 24.0 208 26.9 11086 31.4 0.15 39 12.8 31 32.3 - - 0.05
  25–44 275 32.7 204 39.7 34282 28.7 <0.01 90 36.7 130 34.6 30 20.0 0.23
  45–64 66 36.4 0 0.0 24966 22.2 0.01 -* -* 20 55.0 35 25.7 0.09
  65+ 5 20.0 0 0.0 9784 8.0 0.32 0 0.0 -* -* -* -* 0.51
  total 421 31.6 412 33.3 80118 24.5 <0.01 132 29.5 182 36.3 68 23.5 0.13
Low level of education                
  18–24 163 21.5 165 33.9 2258 53.4 <0.01 113 16.8 28 32.1 - - 0.07
  25–44 1162 32.4 215 48.8 10195 46.0 <0.01 377 28.6 569 33.9 81 44.4 0.02
  45–64 778 16.6 21 19.0 24318 26.6 <0.01 63 14.3 311 15.1 312 18.3 0.50
  65+ 134 6.0 -* -* 37469 5.8 0.94 9 0.0 34 0.0 75 8.0 0.16
  total 2237 24.5 403 40.9 74240 19.6 <0.01 562 24.2 942 26.4 468 21.2 0.09
  1. -* = number smaller than 5
  2. 1p-values are the results of chi-square testing for differences between 1st (total), 2nd generation Turkish migrants, and native-born Germans
  3. 2p-values are the results of chi-square testing for differences between first generation migrants with different durations of residence