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Table 9 Models for Limits in Activities in Daily Living (ADL). Binomial logistic regression: odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals and goodness of fit statisticsa

From: Can microcredit help improve the health of poor women? Some findings from a cross-sectional study in Kerala, India

Dependent variable: Limits in ADL (yes, n = 377, no, n = 551) M0 M1 M2 M3
Socioeconomic characteristics and caste     
Education (ref = high school+) Primary   1.31 [0.89–1.92] 1.31 [0.89–1.92] 1.26 [0.83–1.91]
No education   1.83 [1.24–2.70] 1.82 [1.23–2.71] 1.71 [1.12–2.62]
Employment (ref = not engaged) Engaged   0.64 [0.46–0.91] 0.65 [0.46–0.91] 0.68 [0.47–0.98]
Landholdings (ref = more than 50 cents) 50 cents or less   1.38 [0.96–1.98] 1.37 [0.95–1.98] 1.22 [0.82–1.80]
Caste of head (ref = forward) OBC   0.80 [0.54–1.19] 0.80 [0.54–1.19] 0.81 [0.53–1.25]
SC/ST   0.71 [0.47–1.06] 0.71 [0.47–1.07] 0.72 [0.46–1.12]
SHG participation     
SHG (ref = not member) Early joiner (> 2 years) 0.79 [0.53–1.18]   0.97 [0.62–1.50] 0.91 [0.56–1.46]
Late joiner (< = 2 years) 0.94 [0.70–1.25]   1.14 [0.83–1.57] 1.29 [0.91–1.81]
Health determinants     
Exclusion (ref = no exclusion) Exclusion     2.02 [1.47–2.78]
Health risks (ref = no risks) At least one risk     5.60 [3.84–8.17]
Decision-making (ref = female/joint) Male     2.23 [1.41–3.52]
Chi square (df) -2 log likelihood 1.36 (2) 1252.3 129.5(9)*** 1124.1 130.5(11)*** 1123.1 252.5(14)*** 1001.1
Deviation   2.0(2) 244.0(3)***
  1. a Notes: Models are adjusted for age and women's household position. Results in bold are statistically significant, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001,
  2. OBC = Other Backward Caste, SC/ST = Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe.