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Table 2 Determinants of antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery in Bangladesh (1991–2004)

From: A decade of inequality in maternity care: antenatal care, professional attendance at delivery, and caesarean section in Bangladesh (1991–2004)

  Antenatal care consultation (one or more) Professional attendance at delivery
Live births (N = 23,769) % Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis* % Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis*
   OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Year groups           
1991 – 1993 26.6 1.00   1.00   8.4 1.00   1.00  
1994 – 1996 31.7 1.28 (1.18, 1.39) 1.09 (1.00, 1.20) 10.3 1.24 (1.10, 1.42) 0.90 (0.78, 1.05)
1997 – 1999 43.0 2.08 (1.91, 2.27) 1.48 (1.34, 1.64) 13.6 1.71 (1.50, 1.95) 0.95 (0.82, 1.11)
2000 – 2004 55.8 3.48 (3.19, 3.79) 2.52 (2.28, 2.78) 13.4 1.68 (1.48, 1.91) 0.96 (0.82, 1.12)
Annual trend           
1991 – 2004 38.3 1.14 (1.13, 1.15) 1.11 (1.10, 1.12) 11.3 1.06 (1.05, 1.07) 1.00 (0.99, 1.02)
Asset quintile           
Lowest 20.6 1.00   1.00   3.1 1.00   1.00  
Second 24.8 1.27 (1.13, 1.42) 1.04 (0.92, 1.17) 3.8 1.24 (0.96, 1.58) 0.99 (0.76, 1.28)
Middle 33.7 1.96 (1.76, 2.20) 1.27 (1.12, 1.44) 5.8 1.90 (1.50, 2.40) 1.17 (0.91, 1.51)
Fourth 46.5 3.35 (3.01, 3.74) 1.60 (1.41, 1.82) 11.5 4.03 (3.26, 5.00) 1.72 (1.36, 2.18)
Highest 70.8 9.37 (8.36, 10.50) 2.59 (2.24, 2.99) 35.3 16.92 (13.85, 20.67) 3.06 (2.40, 3.90)
Woman's education           
None 23.6 1.00   1.00   4.3 1.00   1.00  
Primary 39.0 2.09 (1.93, 2.26) 1.48 (1.35, 1.62) 8.3 2.02 (1.75, 2.33) 1.29 (1.09, 1.52)
Secondary 65.7 6.10 (5.58, 6.67) 2.51 (2.22, 2.83) 23.8 7.00 (6.15, 7.98) 2.15 (1.79, 2.59)
Higher 94.8 52.89 (37.27, 75.05) 9.97 (6.86, 14.47) 66.8 44.99 (36.95, 54.77) 5.31 (4.05, 6.95)
Husband's education           
None 25.8 1.00   1.00   4.5 1.00   1.00  
Primary 35.7 1.59 (1.47, 1.73) 1.14 (1.04, 1.26) 7.1 1.61 (1.38, 1.88) 1.07 (0.90, 1.28)
Secondary 52.9 3.13 (2.88, 3.41) 1.40 (1.25, 1.55) 17.3 4.43 (3.87, 5.08) 1.61 (1.36, 1.92)
Higher 78.1 9.59 (8.40, 10.95) 1.79 (1.50, 2.13) 45.3 17.62 (15.22, 20.40) 2.41 (1.94, 3.00)
Area of residence           
Rural 32.9 1.00   1.00   7.2 1.00   1.00  
Urban 66.1 3.98 (3.67, 4.31) 1.97 (1.79, 2.18) 31.8 6.06 (5.50, 6.68) 2.70 (2.39, 3.06)
  1. * Multivariate model controls for all variables in table plus age, parity, singleton birth, and administrative division.