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Table 1 Trends in socio-demographic characteristics in Bangladesh (1991–2004)

From: A decade of inequality in maternity care: antenatal care, professional attendance at delivery, and caesarean section in Bangladesh (1991–2004)

Socioeconomic and demographic variables Year  
  1991–1993 (N = 6,221) 1994–1996 (N = 6,312) 1997–1999 (N = 5,255) 2000–2004 (N = 5,965) P-value*
Area of residence      P < 0.001
Rural 86.6% 82.1% 73.8% 70.0%  
Urban 13.4% 17.9% 26.2% 30.0%  
Maternal education      P < 0.001
No education 56.5% 52.4% 44.3% 35.8%  
Primary 28.2% 28.4% 29.0% 31.1%  
Secondary 13.4% 16.2% 22.2% 27.0%  
Higher 1.8% 3.0% 4.5% 6.0%  
Paternal education      P < 0.001
No education 47.4% 46.0% 42.0% 38.2%  
Primary 24.8% 25.7% 25.3% 26.8%  
Secondary 20.5% 19.6% 22.4% 24.5%  
Higher 7.4% 8.6% 10.3% 10.5%  
Asset quintiles      P < 0.001
Poorest 27.6% 21.6% 17.4% 10.2%  
Poor 24.5% 22.4% 19.2% 15.9%  
Middle 19.5% 19.2% 18.6% 22.5%  
Richer 15.1% 19.0% 21.7% 24.9%  
Richest 13.3% 17.8% 23.2% 26.5%  
Age (years)      P < 0.001
10–19 13.8% 15.7% 18.3% 18.3%  
20–24 33.0% 30.8% 31.1% 34.2%  
25–29 28.3% 27.8% 26.9% 23.9%  
30–34 13.8% 15.6% 14.7% 14.5%  
35–39 7.6% 6.8% 6.3% 6.5%  
40–49 3.5% 3.3% 2.8% 2.6%  
Parity      P < 0.001
1 9.1% 12.2% 16.8% 23.0%  
2 18.6% 22.6% 25.8% 26.8%  
3 20.0% 20.5% 20.3% 19.5%  
4 16.4% 15.1% 13.7% 12.9%  
≥5 35.9% 29.6% 23.4% 17.9%  
Total 100% 100% 100% 100%  
  1. * P-values from Chi-squared test for differences in proportions by year group