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Table 1 Mean, standard deviation and description of all variables

From: Malnutrition and the disproportional burden on the poor: the case of Ghana

Variable Mean SD Description
Stunting (WHO) 0.36 0.48 Height-for-age z-score<-2SD of WHO population (1-0)
Z-score (WHO) 1.58 1.27 Height for age z-score (based upon WHO)
Stunting (NCHS) 0.29 0.45 Height-for-age z-score<-2SD of NCHS population (1-0)
Z-score (NCHS) 1.41 1.17 Height for age z-score (based upon NCHS)
Breastfeeding 16.98 8.34 Duration of breastfeeding (in months)
Age of child    
   ≤ 6 months 0.12 0.33 Age of child split into 3 categories: ≤ 6 months; 6–12 months, >12 months
   6–12 months 0.12 0.32  
   > 12 months 0.76 0.43  
Size of child    
   Size large 0.41 0.49 Size of child at birth in 4 categories: very large, large, normal, small, very small
   Size normal 0.41 0.49  
   Size small 0.12 0.32  
   Size very small 0.06 0.24  
Sex of child 0.50 0.50 Sex of child: male(1), female (0)
Region    
   Upper 0.09 0.29 region of residence: Upper (Upper East and Upper West), Middle (Ashanti and Brong Ahafo), South (Western, Central, Volta and Eastern), Accra, Northern [55]
   Middle 0.30 0.46  
   South 0.36 0.48  
   Accra 0.11 0.31  
   Northern 0.14 0.34  
Urban 0.33 0.47 Urban location (1), rural location (0)
Wealth    
   Poor 0.39 0.49 Wealth groups (poor) based upon principal component analysis. The wealth indicator is estimated on household level and combines the following assets: electricity, radio, TV, fridge, bike, motor, car, phone and the type of the flooring material [60].
   Middle 0.32 0.47  
   Rich 0.29 0.45  
Toilet 0.70 0.46 Having a toilet (flush toilet, traditional pit toilet, ventilated improved pit latrine) (1-0)
Water 0.61 0.49 Whether the household has access to safe water available (1-0). The following sources of water supply were regarded as safe water: piped water (piped into dwelling, piped into yard, plot, or public tap); water from protected well
Twoplus 0.59 0.49 Whether there are more than two under-fives in the household (1-0)
Riskintb 0.10 0.30 Whether there were less than 24 months between the child's birth and the birth of the previous child (1-0)
Married 0.91 0.29 Whether the child's mother is married or living together (1-0)
Mother's education    
   No or incomplete 0.56 0.50 Mother's education level split into 3 categories: no or incomplete primary, primary and incomplete secondary, secondary and higher
   Primary 0.40 0.49  
   Secondary and higher 0.04 0.20  
Health services index    
   Healthlow 0.33 0.47 Use of health services (low, moderate, high) estimated by principal component analysis. The indicator combines skilled birth attendance, antenatal care and proportion of recommended vaccinations [45]. The age schedule from the Expanded Program on Immunization set by the WHO was used: BCG at birth, DPT and Polio at 2, 3 and 4 months and measles at 9 months.
   Healthmod 0.32 0.46  
   Healthhigh 0.31 0.46  
Mother's age at birth    
   <20 0.11 0.31 Mother's age at birth in years split into 3 categories: <20, 20–39, >39
   20–39 0.81 0.39  
   >39 0.08 0.27  
Mother's occupation    
   Prof, tech, man, cler, sales, service 0.32 0.47 Professional, technical, managerial, clerical, sales, services; agriculture; manual; not working
   Agriculture 0.44 0.50  
   Manual 0.14 0.35  
   Not working 0.10 0.30  
Observations 3061   
  1. Reference categories for categorical variables used in the regression model are in bold.