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Table 3 Oslo Health Study 2000–2001, 40- and 45- year olds living in areas east and west Odds ratio for much pain/stiffness in muscles and/or joints, related to demographic variables, lifestyle and mental distress. Logistic regression analyses.

From: Musculo-skeletal pain among 40- and 45-year olds in Oslo: differences between two socioeconomically contrasting areas, and their possible explanations

  Odds ratio (95 % CI), unadjusted Odds ratio (95 % CI), adjusted1
Female sex 1.45 (1.15 – 1.83) 1.85 (1.40 – 2.45)
Single status 1.02 (0.82 – 1.29)  
Area east 1.88 (1.49 – 2.38) 1.22 (0.92 – 1.62)
Low education 2.11 (1.43 – 3.16) 1.09 (0.67 – 1.78)
Low income 1.34 (1.01 – 1.79)  
Low household income 1.1 (0.72 – 1.68)  
Non-western country of origin 4.41 (3.25 – 5.99) 3.17 (2.17 – 4.63)
Daily smoking 0.81 (0.64 – 1.04)  
No hard exercise 2.00 (1.55 – 2.59) 1.37 (1.01 – 1.85)
Mental health problems 3.87 (2.92 – 5.14) 2.70 (1.94 – 3.76)
  1. 1Variables included into analyses: sex, area, education, country of origin, exercise, mental health problems.