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Table 5 Under-5 mortality rates per wealth group and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)

From: Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

   Under-5 mortality rates (per 1,000 live births)   95% CI for RII
Country Wealth Index Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest RII low up
Bolivia WB Index 135.1 106.0 93.4 39.8 32.2 6.30 4.76 8.34
  Index 1 134.6 103.0 96.0 45.0 28.8 6.04 4.58 7.97
  Index 2 130.1 99.3 94.2 44.1 32.7 5.89 4.43 7.83
  Index 3 126.2 120.7 92.4 46.4 32.7 5.29 + 4.02 6.96
Brazil WB Index 89.4 52.5 36.2 26.1 29.3 6.41 4.02 10.22
  Index 1 88.3 49.4 36.6 27.2 33.0 5.55 + 3.51 8.78
  Index 2 89.8 47.7 38.7 a 27.0 [5.60 +] 3.66 8.58
  Index 3 90.6 47.5 38.7 a 26.8 [5.71 +] 3.73 8.74
Cameroon WB Index 160.0 145.0 120.3 102.5 75.0 2.84 2.08 3.87
  Index 1 174.9 144.4 113.1 95.4 72.4 3.34 + 2.41 4.61
  Index 2 146.9 168.0 115.4 99.7 74.4 2.77 2.03 3.78
  Index 3 a 140.2 130.6 78.3 75.8 2.78 2.02 3.82
Chad WB Index 151.8 207.2 175.2 165.0 155.0 1.08 0.91 1.28
  Index 1 146.8 186.4 232.5 154.4 153.7 1.00 ++ 0.85 1.18
  Index 2 b 184.6 b 157.3 133.9 [1.71 ++] 1.40 2.10
  Index 3 b 184.2 b 157.4 132.4 [1.70 ++] 1.39 2.09
Indonesia WB Index 97.9 67.1 58.0 44.2 25.6 4.65 3.55 6.09
  Index 1 94.4 67.5 59.6 42.6 32.2 3.89 + 2.95 5.14
  Index 2 89.7 75.3 62.8 37.1 31.5 3.90 + 3.03 5.03
  Index 3 81.2 82.1 65.6 39.4 31.9 3.34 ++ 2.61 4.28
Kenya WB Index 128.0 120.9 79.3 72.9 54.6 3.29 2.43 4.46
  Index 1 126.3 120.0 76.3 86.8 52.6 3.10 2.29 4.21
  Index 2 112.0 141.6 87.8 106.6 52.3 [2.11 ++] 1.57 2.82
  Index 3 112.3 141.1 84.8 104.9 53.1 [2.00 ++] 1.50 2.68
Malawi WB Index 220.0 203.4 225.5 214.6 159.2 1.31 1.04 1.64
  Index 1 193.4 228.9 233.4 216.5 157.3 1.17 ++ 0.95 1.45
  Index 2 259.2 211.5 183.9 211.1 172.0 [1.49 ++] 1.16 1.90
  Index 3 257.5 211.2 a 167.0 176.1 [1.50 ++] 1.17 1.91
Pakistan WB Index 116.2 133.8 120.7 110.5 68.7 1.80 1.37 2.37
  Index 1 119.2 122.4 134.9 117.9 64.9 1.59 + 1.22 2.08
  Index 2 126.6 117.9 134.8 113.8 69.2 [1.83 ] 1.39 2.42
  Index 3 118.3 b 133.3 99.3 71.7 [1.61 +] 1.22 2.13
Tanzania WB Index 124.2 162.1 125.7 136.2 85.5 1.48 1.20 1.83
  Index 1 121.4 157.9 151.3 121.1 86.0 1.49 1.21 1.82
  Index 2 149.6 b 133.5 115.4 102.5 [1.91 ++] 1.51 2.41
  Index 3 b 149.3 132.3 105.7 106.9 [1.82 ++] 1.44 2.30
Uganda WB Index 162.7 132.8 136.0 134.6 95.7 1.72 1.38 2.15
  Index 1 157.4 145.3 133.6 129.3 98.5 1.76 1.41 2.19
  Index 2 157.6 144.3 136.3 126.9 99.9 1.77 1.42 2.21
  Index 3 157.6 144.2 135.2 130.3 98.9 1.76 1.41 2.20
  1. Notes: [] RII's in parentheses indicate that results may be an artefact due to combination of population heaping and a non-linear association of under-5 mortality with wealth; a rates are not shown due to small sample size (smaller then 500), referring to the denominator, i.e. live births during the last 10 years preceding the survey; b empty cell due to heaping (see Table 2); + 10–30% change in RII compared to the WB index; ++ >30% change in RII compared to WB index