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Table 6 Multilevel logistic regression of the probability of non-use of dental care by individual and countries characteristics

From: Socioeconomic inequalities in the non-use of dental care in Europe

  Model 0 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
  (Empty model) OR CI 95% OR CI 95% OR CI 95% OR CI 95% OR CI 95%
Fixed effects            
Intercept 0.07* 0.07* 0.05-0.09 0.07* 0.04-0.10 0.06* 0.04-0.10 0.08* 0.06-0.11 0.10* 0.06-0.15
Age   0.93* 0.90-0.97 0.93* 0.90-0.97 0.93* 0.90-0.97 0.92* 0.89-0.96 0.92* 0.89-0.96
Sex            
Men   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.  
women   0.997* 0.995-0.998 0.997* 0.995-0.998 0.997* 0.995-0.998 0.995* 0.995-0.997 0.995* 0.99-0.997
Education level            
Tertiary   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.  
Primary   1.49* 1.42-1.56 1.49* 1.42-1.56 1.49* 1.42-1.56 1.46* 1.38-1.54 1.46* 1.38-1.54
Secondary   1.24* 1.19-1.30 1.24* 1.19-1.30 1.24* 1.19-1.30 1.21* 1.15-1.27 1.21* 1.15-1.27
Marital status            
Married   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.  
Never married   0.97 0.92-1.01 0.97 0.92-1.01 0.97 0.92-1.01 0.98 0.93-1.03 0.98 0.93-1.03
Divorced/Separate   1.69* 1.60-1.78 1.69* 1.60-1.78 1.68* 1.59-1.78 1.73* 1.63-1.85 1.73* 1.63-1.85
Widow   1.13* 1.06-1.20 1.13* 1.06-1.20 1.13* 1.06-1.20 1.13* 1.05-1.21 1.13* 1.05-1.21
Standard of living            
Quartile 4   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.  
Quartile 1   1.01 0.97-1.06 1.01 0.97-1.06 1.01 0.97-1.06 1.02 0.98-1.08 1.02 0.98-1.08
Quartile 2   0.97 0.93-1.02 0.97 0.93-1.02 0.97 0.93-1.02 0.98 0.93-1.03 0.98 0.93-1.03
Quartile 3   0.99 0.95-1.04 0.99 0.95-1.04 0.99 0.95-1.04 0.99 0.94-1.04 0.99 0.94-1.04
Professional status            
Employees/Self-employment   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.   ref.  
Retired/pre-retired   0.85* 0.80-0.90 0.85* 0.80-0.90 0.84* 0.80-0.89 0.82* 0.77-0.87 0.82* 0.77-0.87
Student   0.42* 0.39-0.46 0.42* 0.39-0.46 0.42* 0.39-0.46 0.44* 0.40-0.48 0.44* 0.40-0.48
Other   1.42* 1.36-1.45 1.42* 1.36-1.45 1.42* 1.36-1.48 1.41* 1.34-1.47 1.41* 1.34-1.47
Density of dentists            
>7     ref.       ref.  
<6     1.06 0.55-2.05      0.90 0.53-1.50
6-7     1.12 0.60-2.11      0.78 0.46-1.33
Human development Index            
HDI group 3 (HDI > = 0.952)       ref.     ref.  
HDI group 1 (HDI < = 0.874)       2.00* 1.10-3.67    1.59 0.85-2.97
HDI group 2 (HDI: 0.874 - 0.952)       0.78 0.46-1.32    0.63 0.39-1.00
Codecare            
1         ref.   ref.  
0         0.75 0.45-1.25 0.76 0.47-1.23
Random effects            
Level 2 : between country variation 1.46* 1.50* 1.18-1.92 1.48* 1.18-1.88 1.31* 1.11-1.54 1.32* 1.09-1.59 1.18* 1.05-1.32
Intraclass coefficient (ICC) 10.28% 11.01%   10.72%   7.61%   7.77%   4.75%  
−2 log likelihood 176679 129187   129187   129178   190685   109675  
Number of countries 24 24   24   24   20   20  
  1. Calculated by the authors.
  2. (*)Significant to the error threshold of 5%
  3. Abbreviations: EU-SILC European Union Survey Statistic on Income and Living Conditions, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval.
  4. Eurostat, EU-SILC 2007.