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Table 3 Cumulative OR with 95% CI for self-rated health (1 = best health and 5 = poorest health) by socioeconomic, behaviour factors and longstanding illness among women in St. Petersburg

From: Socioeconomic differences in self-rated health among women: a comparison of St. Petersburg to Estonia and Finland

  Model I age-adjusteda Model II + SEP adjustedb,c Model III + behavior risk factorsb,d Model IV + chronic diseasesb,e
Education pf < 0.01 pf < 0.05 pf <0.10 pf ns
< 11 yrs 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
11–13 yrs 0.67 [0.41–1.09] 0.65# [0.39–1.07] 0.64 [0.39–1.06] 0.65 [0.38–1.12]
14–16 yrs 0.51** [0.32–0.82] 0.52* [0.31–0.85] 0.54* [0.33–0.89] 0.55* [0.32–0.96]
17+ yrs 0.42** [0.23–0.77] 0.40** [0.22–0.75] 0.46* [0.25–0.87] 0.46* [0.23–0.91]
Personal income pf ns pf ns pf ns pf ns
Lowest quartile 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
2nd quartile 1.17 [0.80–1.69] 0.87 [0.56–1.36] 0.88 [0.56–1.38] 0.87 [0.55–1.39]
3rd quartile 1.00 [0.69–1.45] 0.77 [0.49–1.21] 0.82 [0.52–1.30] 0.79 [0.50–1.26]
Highest quartile 0.85 [0.60–1.21] 0.69 [0.44–1.08] 0.69 [0.44–1.08] 0.65# [0.41–1.04]
Employment pf ns pf < 0.05 pf < 0.10 pf < 0.10
Employed 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Student 0.77 [0.49–1.19] 0.74 [0.44–1.23] 0.78 [0.46–1.32] 0.66 [0.37–1.17]
Unemployed 1.32 [0.72–2.42] 1.04 [0.54–2.01] 1.04 [0.54–2.02] 1.09 [0.58–2.06]
Housewives 0.66# [0.42–1.03] 0.47* [0.27–0.83] 0.48* [0.27–0.86] 0.50* [0.28–0.89]
Family structure pf ns pf ns pf ns pf ns
Child & partner 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Only partner 1.01 [0.74–1.38] 1.00 [0.72–1.38] 0.89 [0.64–1.25] 0.97 [0.68–1.38]
No children no partner 0.87 [0.62–1.22] 0.85 [0.59–1.23] 0.79 [0.55–1.14] 0.78 [0.54–1.13]
Only children 0.98 [0.67–1.44] 0.90 [0.61–1.34] 0.92 [0.62–1.37] 0.84 [0.55–1.28]
Smoking pf <0.10   pf ns pf ns
Never 1.00   1.00 1.00
In past 1.26 [0.84–1.87]   1.19 [0.78–1.80] 1.23 [0.80–1.90]
Occasional 1.04 [0.74–1.47]   1.01 [0.71–1.44] 1.04 [0.72–1.50]
Current 1.44* [1.07–1.93]   1.31# [0.97–1.78] 1.34# [0.98–1.82]
BMI pf <0.001   pf <0.01 pf <0.05
Under 20 1.24 [0.90–1.72]   1.27 [0.91–1.78] 1.16 [0.82–1.65]
20–24.9 1.00   1.00 1.00
25–29.9 1.66** [1.19–2.30]   1.63** [1.15–2.31] 1.45* [1.02–2.06]
30+ 2.44** [1.57–3.79]   2.33*** [1.48–3.67] 1.95** [1.23–3.12]
Mental illness pf ns    pf ns
Yes vs. no 1.86 [0.15–22.4]    4.53 [0.26–77.66]
Trauma & musculoskeletal pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 2.31*** [1.44–3.70]    3.75 *** [2.27–6.18]
Cardiovascular illness pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 2.79*** [1.86–4.19]    4.49*** [2.91–6.92]
Other diseases pf <0.001    pf <0.001
Yes vs. no 3.15*** [2.40–4.14]    4.47*** [3.31–6.04]
  1. SEP = socioeconomic position, BMI = body mass index.
  2. aModel I SRH = age + one of the explanatory variables (education, personal income, employment status, family structure, BMI, smoking, chronic diseases).
  3. bElaboration analysis by adding a group of explanatory variables in the model allows one to assess the mediation effect of the group of new variables.
  4. cModel II SRH = age + SEP variables (education + personal income + employment status + family structure).
  5. dModel III SRH = age + SEP variables + behaviour variables (BMI + smoking).
  6. eModel IV SRH = age + SEP variables + behaviour variables + chronic diseases.
  7. fWald test for significance of the cumulative OR difference between the categories of the variable, #p < 0.1; *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; ns not significant.