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Table 4 Targeting characteristics of the 40 voucher programs

From: Lessons from sexual and reproductive health voucher program design and function: a comprehensive review

Targeting mechanisms Yes Observation
Using means testing (MT) with or without other forms of targeting 23  
  • Use only means testing (MT) 18 5 VPs in India use a BPL card, 3 in Cambodia use a poor card, others mainly use questionnaires, but 2 VPs in China used community-based participatory approaches to identify the poor
  • Use MT in combination with geographical targeting (GT) 3 GT usually used to identify poor rural or slum areas, questionnaires (MT) in urban or peri-urban areas
  • MT for SMH and FP services and universal targeting for Safe Abortion and GBV 2 The KfW funded voucher programs used universal targeting for specific services: Cambodia (safe abortion), Kenya (GBV services) and MT for others
Using only geographical targeting 14 A range of VPs in many countries targeted at areas identified as poor such as rural areas (i.e. Nicaragua) or slums (i.e. India) or vulnerable groups in poor areas (adolescents, sex workers)
Using universal targeting 3 Armenia, Taiwan, Korea (Taiwan and Korea moved to MT at a later stage)