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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for determinants of health insurance ownership

From: Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

Variable Adjusted OR 95% CI
Employment sector (Ref = Not working)   
Formal employment 2.2*** [1.5-3.2]
Informal employment 1.5 [0.8-3.1]
Marital status (Ref = Never married)   
Married 1.8* [1.3-2.5]
Formerly married 0.5 [0.2-1.1]
Exposure to media   
Frequency of reading newspaper (Ref = Not at all)   
Sometimes 1.6* [1.0-2.6]
Almost everyday 3.5*** [2.0-6.0]
Frequency of listening to radio (Ref = Not at all)   
Sometimes 1.5 [0.9-2.5]
Almost everyday 1.7* [1.0-3.1]
Frequency of watching television (Ref = Not at all)   
Sometimes 2.3*** [1.4-3.5]
Almost everyday 2.6*** [1.7-4.2]
Education (Ref = No education)   
Primary 4.4** [1.6-12.2]
Secondary or higher 10.9*** [3.6-33.1]
Age (Years) (Ref = 15–19)   
20-24 1.6 [0.8-3.5]
25-29 2.5** [1.3-4.9]
30-34 2.0* [1.2-3.5]
35-39 2.6** [1.4-4.8]
40-44 1.6 [0.9-2.9]
45-49 4.0*** [2.0-7.8]
Gender of household head (Ref = Male)   
Female 1.7** [1.2-2.3]
Number of household members (Ref = 1–4)   
5+ members 1.0 [1.0-1.1]
Household wealth status (Ref = Poorest/poorer)   
Middle 3.2** [1.5-6.9]
Richer/richest 6.3** [3.0-13.2]
Place of residence (Ref = Urban)   
Rural 1.0 [0.6-1.4]
Province (Ref = Nairobi)   
Central 0.4** [0.2-0.8]
Coast 0.8 [0.4-1.6]
Eastern 1.0 [0.5-1.8]
North Eastern 0.1* [0.0-0.7]
Nyanza 1.1 [0.6-1.9]
Rift Valley 1.4 [0.9-2.2]
Western 0.6 [0.3-1.3]
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.