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Table 2 Bivariate analysis for associations between health insurance ownership and explanatory variables

From: Determinants of health insurance ownership among women in Kenya: evidence from the 2008–09 Kenya demographic and health survey

  Covered by health insurance
Variable Total number N (%) p-values
Employment sector    
Formal employment 2,114 353 (16.7) ***
Informal employment 2,565 102 (4.0)
Not working 3,735 147 (3.9)
Marital status    
Never married 2,538 158 (6.2) ***
Married 5,035 411 (8.2)
Formerly married 862 35 (4.1)
Education    
No education 1,239 6 (0.5) ***
Primary 4,400 100 (2.3)
Secondary or higher 2,796 498 (17.8)
Exposure to media    
Frequency of reading newspaper    
Not all 4,913 1.9 ***
Sometimes 2,948 10.6
Almost everyday 566 35.0
Frequency of listening to radio    
Not all 1,551 18.4 ***
Sometimes 2,004 23.8
Almost everyday 4,877 57.8
Frequency of watching television    
Not all 4,595 1.7 ***
Sometimes 1,636 6.2
Almost everyday 2,202 19.3
Age (Years)    
15-19 1,765 53 (3.0) ***
20-24 1,742 86 (4.9)
25-29 1,422 123 (8.7)
30-34 1,178 118 (10.0)
35-39 930 91 (9.8)
40-44 729 72 (9.9)
45-49 669 61 (9.1)
Gender of household head    
Male 5,345 393 (7.4) 0.368
Female 3,090 211 (6.8)
Number of household members    
1-4 members 3,360 305 (9.1) ***
5+ members 5,075 299 (5.9)
Household wealth status    
Poorest/poorer 2,977 18 (0.6) ***
Middle 1,455 44 (3.0)
Richer/richest 4,003 542 (13.5)
Place of residence    
Urban 2,611 395 (15.1) ***
Rural 5,824 209 (3.6)
Province    
Central 972 40 (4.1) ***
Coast 1,149 67 (5.8)
Eastern 1,127 62 (5.5)
North Eastern 606 1 (0.2)
Nairobi 951 230 (24.2)
Nyanza 1,316 82 (6.2)
Rift Valley 1,276 84 (6.6)
Western 1,038 38 (3.7)
Total 8,444 604 (7.2)  
  1. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001; X2 was used to test the association between health insurance ownership and explanatory variables.