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Table 5 Prevalence, prevalence difference and prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) of health services utilization in the last three months and of preventive activities in the last year by private health plan (PHP), according to per capita income, in the study areas of Brazil (2011)

From: Inequities in access to health care in different health systems: a study in municipalities of central Colombia and north-eastern Brazil

  < ½ MW (per capita) ½ - 1 MW (per capita) > 1 MW (per capita)
  n Prev PD PR (CI 95%)a n Prev PD PR (CI 95%)a n Prev PD PR (CI 95%)a
Primary care             
  Without PHP 506 49.3   1 247 45.2   1 47 32.0   1
  With PHP 44 46.8 -2.5 0.99 (0.79 - 1.25) 63 36.4 -8.8 0.79 (0.64 - 0.99) 51 30.5 -1.5 0.95 (0.68 - 1.33)
Outpatient secondary care             
  Without PHP 212 20.6   1 141 25.8   1 38 25.9   1
  With PHP 16 17.0 -3.6 0.98 (0.64 - 1.52) 59 34.1 8.3 1.57 (1.23 - 2.00) 58 34.7 8.8 1.40 (1.02 - 1.93)
Emergency care             
  Without PHP 348 33.9   1 194 35.5   1 37 25.2   1
  With PHP 42 44.7 10.8 1.35 (1.05 - 1.72) 46 26.6 -8.9 0.66 (0.50 - 0.86) 37 22.2 -3.0 1.03 (0.68 - 1.55)
Glycemic control (adults)             
  Without PHP 391 52.1   1 268 57.0   1 67 50.0   1
  With PHP 36 58.1 6.0 1.16 (0.93 - 1.45) 78 66.1 9.1 1.22 (1.06 - 1.42) 93 67.4 17.4 1.40 (1.15 - 1.71)
Caries prevention (adults)             
  Without PHP 107 14.3   1 88 18.7   1 23 17.2   1
  With PHP 16 25.8 11.5 1.80 (1.15 - 2.82) 41 34.8 16.1 1.58 (1.17 - 2.12) 58 42.0 24.8 2.42 (1.59 - 3.68)
Breast cancer prevention (women)           
  Without PHP 149 25.3   1 100 27.4   1 27 31.0   1
  With PHP 19 38.0 12.7 1.61 (1.09 - 2.36) 28 29.8 2.4 1.15 (0.81 - 1.63) 42 42.9 11.9 1.48 (1.02 - 2.15)
  1. Prev, Prevalence; PD, Prevalence Difference; PR, Prevalence ratio; CI, Confidence Interval; MW, minimum wage; PHP, Private Health Plan.
  2. aPrevalence Ratio and 95% confidence interval adjusted for sex, age, race/color, chronic condition, self-rated health status.
  3. Statistically significant results are shown in bold.