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Table 5 Results of the negative binomial model (considering random effects) with number of consultations as dependent variable

From: Waiting times in the ambulatory sector - the case of chronically Ill patients

  All Urban areas Rural areas
Dependent variable: number of consultations IRR Standard errors IRR Standard errors IRR Standard errors
Need          
Age 30 to 44 0.966 0.109   1.229 0.186   0.805 0.140  
Age 45 to 59 0.877 0.093   1.009 0.144   0.860 0.143  
Age 60 to 69 0.815 0.088 * 0.879 0.122   0.786 0.137  
Age 70 to 79 0.786 0.086 ** 0.766 0.110 * 0.865 0.154  
Excellent health 0.997 0.130   1.174 0.212   0.778 0.150  
Good health 1.311 0.152 ** 1.474 0.243 ** 1.092 0.177  
Poor or very poor health 1.682 0.195 *** 1.793 0.296 *** 1.461 0.234 **
Hospitalisation in the last 12 months 1.344 0.061 *** 1.323 0.085 *** 1.398 0.096 ***
Socioeconomic factors & Gender          
Lowest secondary school qualification 1.114 0.068 * 1.091 0.090   1.109 0.104  
Intermediate secondary school qualification 0.990 0.058   0.986 0.082   0.985 0.083  
Male 1.007 0.047   0.990 0.063   0.988 0.071  
German citizenship 0.921 0.148   1.079 0.207   0.608 0.186  
Patient time pressures          
Employed 0.785 0.046 *** 0.683 0.056 *** 0.869 0.074 *
Health System          
Privately insured 1.051 0.089   1.106 0.124   0.978 0.127  
GP consultation 0.990 0.049   1.039 0.071   0.965 0.072  
Waiting time 1.000 0.001   0.998 0.002   1.001 0.001  
Waiting time * privately insured 1.001 0.004   0.997 0.006   1.006 0.005  
Driving time to the nearest doctor (in minutes) 1.014 0.014   1.025 0.020   1.008 0.021  
Number of doctors per 100 000 population 1.000 0.000   1.005 0.005   0.995 0.005  
Spill-over effect for neighbouring regions 0.828 0.105   0.780 0.162   0.834 0.133  
Constant 5.815 3.032 ** 3.101 1.371 ** 14.268 7.945 ***
Number of observations 540    293    247   
Number of districts 230    97    133   
Log likelihood −1736.7257    −942.6152    −782.55849   
  1. * Significant at the 10% level ** Significant at the 5% level *** Significant at the 1% level.
  2. The reference individual is female, German aged 10 to 29 years, in very good health, has highest secondary school qualification, not employed and member of the statutory health insurance and last consulted a specialist.