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Table 4 Results of the negative binomial model (considering random effects) with waiting time as dependent variable

From: Waiting times in the ambulatory sector - the case of chronically Ill patients

  All areas Urban areas Rural areas
Dependent variable: waiting time IRR Standard errors IRR Standard errors IRR Standard errors
Need          
Age 30 to 44 0.879 0.163   1.118 0.291   0.668 0.179  
Age 45 to 59 0.864 0.149   0.930 0.228   0.762 0.187  
Age 60 to 69 0.847 0.152   1.050 0.259   0.665 0.181  
Age 70 to 79 0.796 0.145   0.941 0.241   0.647 0.175  
Excellent health 1.285 0.254   1.356 0.362   1.371 0.411  
Good health 1.155 0.204   1.422 0.339   0.995 0.267  
Poor or very poor health 1.183 0.217   1.118 0.277   1.329 0.370  
Hospitalisation within the last 12 months 0.927 0.085   1.057 0.133   0.834 0.112  
Socioeconomic factors & gender          
Lowest secondary school qualification 0.754 0.083 ** 0.663 0.098 ** 0.868 0.146  
Intermediate secondary school qualification 0.849 0.088   0.724 0.103 ** 1.002 0.158  
Male 0.963 0.082   0.972 0.112   0.995 0.129  
German citizenship 1.155 0.272   1.181 0.321   1.455 0.742  
Patient time pressures          
Employed 0.969 0.106   0.916 0.137   1.011 0.164  
Health system          
Privately insured 0.723 0.114 ** 0.645 0.132 ** 0.758 0.191  
GP consultation 0.642 0.076 *** 0.514 0.085 *** 0.782 0.132  
Privately insured * GP consultation 1.110 0.406   1.139 0.582   1.167 0.623  
Driving time to the nearest doctor (in minutes) 1.112 0.027 *** 1.078 0.038 ** 1.152 0.041 ***
Number of doctors per 100 000 population 1.001 0.006   0.996 0.010   1.008 0.009  
Spill-over effect for neighbouring regions 1.005 0.161   1.000 0.361   1.000 0.180  
Constant 0.203 0.163 ** 0.211 0.139 ** 0.076 0.061 ***
Number of observations 1095    569    526   
Number of districts 328    123    205   
Log likelihood −2871.1877    −1469.36    −1388.6   
  1. * Significant at the 10% level ** Significant at the 5% level *** Significant at the 1% level.
  2. The reference individual is female, German aged 10 to 29 years, in very good health, has highest secondary school qualification, not employed and member of the statutory health insurance and last consulted a specialist.