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Table 2 Intervention studies

From: Childhood disability in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: a literature review

First Author (year) Disability/ impairment Design Aims Level of Evidence TREND Scores Population Geographic Setting Intervention type Methods Indigenous involvement Recruitment Control group Language Content/components Duration Evaluation Key Findings Conclusions/recommendations Category
Ryan, B. (2006) Hearing Experiment; intervention To investigate Indigenous Australian children's attitudes of peers wearing hearing aids VI 13 60 Indigenous Australian children aged 5–12 years (mean age 9) 3 urban schools in Alice Springs learning- based desensitization program Experiment (photographs of Aboriginal people with and without hearing aids, attitudes surveyed, 20 min. educational intervention on benefits of hearing aids) Community Consult No info Reverse ordered English and Tiwi discussion-based intervention was designed to encourage the participants to reduce stigma and negative attitudes towards people who wear hearing aids; demonstrations; An audio example; scenarios 10 minutes Survey Children had negative attitudes towards others with hearing aids; intervention had significant effect on attitudes Children had more negative attitude towards peers with hearing aids; intervention had significant effect on attitudes; Potential for negative attitudes towards peers w/hearing aids to be changed via learning-based discussion aimed at reducing negative attitudes. A
Strange, A. (2008) Hearing Experimental; intervention Identify the negative stigmas attached to hearing aids, increase awareness of attitudes VI 13 62 Indigenous adolescents boarding at high schools Alice Springs aged 12–18 (mean age 14) Alice Springs learning- based desensitization program Experiment (photographs of Aboriginal people with and without hearing aids, attitudes surveyed, 20 min. educational intervention on benefits of hearing aids) Community Consult No info Reverse ordered English and Tiwi discussion-based intervention was designed to encourage the participants to reduce stigma and negative attitudes towards people who wear hearing aids; demonstrations; An audio example; scenarios 20-30 minutes Survey greater visibility of the hearing aid, is associated with more negative attitudes by adolescents; intervention demonstrated some reduced stigma Stigma and negative attitudes contribute to the low use of hearing aids in children; Need to develop appropriate strategies to decrease stigma and increase the use of amplification; appropriate attitude changing techniques interventions needed A
Yonovitz, L. (2000) Hearing Intervention Demonstrate link between hearing loss and low English literacy VI 10.75 1,032 Indigenous students 4–22 years old representing 106 rural and remote communities NT (Darwin and Alice Springs) phonological awareness Teacher in-service sessions; pre/post PA- EFL criterion- referenced, diagnostic tests Not reported No info None English 1)two-day workshops for each school for teachers and assistant; 2)provision of amplification systems and hearing aids; 3) ear, hearing, phonological awareness assessment; 4) reading, spelling assessment; (over 1 school year) 12 months ear, hearing, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling assessments Teacher training, hearing support services, screening, and phonological awareness intervention documented strong improvements in literacy and contributed to understanding relationship between ear disease and low literacy. This intervention represents a feasible, adaptive program that can be used in combination with existing ESL curricula and should not cause interference with already published phonics programs. S, I
Massie, R. (2004) Hearing Intervention Identify effects of sound-field amplification on communication in classrooms of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children VI 11 64 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students from 4 classrooms in two rural QLD schools Rural QLD communities amplification trial Classroom observation; teacher questionnaire; assessments, modified Environmental Communication Profile, Screening Identification for Targeting Educational Risk rating scale None reported No info None English amplification on/off conditions changed fortnightly 8 weeks Teacher survey, sensory assessments Sound-field amplification intervention encouraged the children to interact with teachers and peers in a proactive way. No clear or enforceable standards for classroom acoustics in Australia exist; amplification may provide rapid, cost effective part of solution to improving the classroom listening environment. S, I
  1. Queensland (QLD); Category: (R-recognition/awareness; A-Access; S-Solutions; I-Intervention; Q-Sequelae/outcomes); Level of Evidence: I Evidence from a systematic review, meta-analysis of all relevant randomized control trials (RCT) (Strongest); II Evidence from at least one well-designed RCT; III Evidence from well-designed controlled trials without randomization; IV Evidence from well-designed case–control and cohort studies; V Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies; VI Evidence from single descriptive or qualitative study; VII Evidence from the opinion of authorities or expert committee reports (Weakest).