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Table 4 Effects of multimorbidity and socioeconomic characteristics on annual non-pharmacy costs a

From: The influence of socio-economic status and multimorbidity patterns on healthcare costs: a six-year follow-up under a universal healthcare system

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
(β) p-value (β) p-value (β) p-value
Age 0.024 <.001 0.006 <.001 0.005 <.001
Male −0.875 <.001 −0.362 <.001 −0.357 <.001
Female (reference)
Occupation
 Employer −0.099 <.001 −0.040 .003 0.781 <.001
 Physician −0.264 <.001 0.507 <.001 2.708 <.001
 Paramedical personnel 0.366 <.001 0.439 <.001 4.046 <.001
 Public servant 0.357 <.001 0.146 <.001 3.012 <.001
Employees or self-employed (reference)
 Farmer 0.389 <.001 −0.046 <.001 0.114 <.001
 Fisherman 0.126 <.001 −0.111 <.001 0.030 .385
 Low income 1.940 <.001 0.799 <.001 −0.350 <.001
 Unemployed families (vs. employed) 0.833 <.001 0.250 <.001 0.251 <.001
Income
 <=USD$594 −1.193 <.001 −0.642 <.001 −0.627 <.001
 USD$594 - $ 1 210 (reference)
USD$1 210 - $3 850 0.209 <.001 0.224 <.001 0.222 <.001
> = USD$3 850 0.136 <.001 0.406 <.001 0.392 <.001
Multimorbidity
0 RxMG (reference)
 1 - 4 RxMGs    11.503 <.001 11.741 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs    12.503 <.001 12.742 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs    13.646 <.001 13.854 <.001
Interaction of occupation and multimorbidity
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Employer      −0.925 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Physician      −2.792 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Paramedical personnel      −4.055 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Public servant      −3.118 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Farmer      −0.219 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Fisherman      −0.151 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Low income      1.111 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Employer      −0.942 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Physician      −2.717 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Paramedical personnel      −4.138 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Public servant      −3.246 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Farmer      −0.192 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Fisherman      −0.170 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Low income      1.247 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Employer      −1.019 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Physician      −2.573 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Paramedical personnel      −4.310 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Public servant      −3.315 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Farmer      −0.089 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Fisherman      −0.183 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Low income      1.422 <.001
Model fitting indices
 −2 Log Likelihood 33 906 909   30 075 330   30 042 645  
 AIC 33 906 951   30 075 372   30 042 687  
 BIC 33 907 198   30 075 619   30 042 935  
  1. a.costs are log-transformed.
  2. Model 1: controlled for age and gender then estimated effect of occupation and income on log-transformed annual non-pharmacy costs.
  3. Model 2: included all variables appeared in model 1, plus multimorbidity (Rx-MGs classification).
  4. Model 3: included all variables appeared in model 2, plus the interaction between occupation and multimorbidity.