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Table 3 Effects of multimorbidity and socioeconomic characteristics on annual total healthcare costs a

From: The influence of socio-economic status and multimorbidity patterns on healthcare costs: a six-year follow-up under a universal healthcare system

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
(β) p-value (β) p-value (β) p-value
Age 0.029 <.001 0.010 <.001 0.010 <.001
Male −0.871 <.001 −0.353 <.001 −0.349 <.001
Female (reference)
Occupation
 Employer −0.096 <.001 −0.038 .006 0.768 <.001
 Physician −0.205 .007 0.582 <.001 2.692 <.001
 Paramedical personnel 0.380 <.001 0.457 <.001 4.084 <.001
 Public servant 0.364 <.001 0.151 <.001 3.027 <.001
Employees or self-employed (reference)
 Farmer 0.412 <.001 −0.025 .001 0.105 <.001
 Fisherman 0.134 <.001 −0.104 <.001 0.042 .222
 Low income 1.985 <.001 0.844 <.001 −0.377 <.001
 Unemployed families (vs. employed) 0.876 <.001 0.302 <.001 0.304 <.001
Income
 <=USD$594 −1.191 <.001 −0.637 <.001 −0.622 <.001
 USD$594 - $ 1 210 (reference)
 USD$1 210 - $3 850 0.206 <.001 0.221 <.001 0.219 <.001
 > = USD$3 850 0.130 <.001 0.401 <.001 0.388 <.001
Multimorbidity
0 RxMG (reference)
 1 - 4 RxMGs    11.650 <.001 11.884 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs    12.685 <.001 12.917 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs    13.798 <.001 14.010 <.001
Interaction of occupation and multimorbidity
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Employer      −0.916 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Physician      −2.691 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Paramedical personnel      −4.073 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Public servant      −3.132 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Farmer      −0.190 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Fisherman      −0.155 <.001
 1 - 4 RxMGs * Low income      1.192 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Employer      −0.910 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Physician      −2.564 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Paramedical personnel      −4.167 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Public servant      −3.252 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Farmer      −0.143 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Fisherman      −0.178 <.001
 5 - 8 RxMGs * Low income      1.359 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Employer      −0.992 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Physician      −2.481 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Paramedical personnel      −4.345 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Public servant      −3.326 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Farmer      −0.075 .001
 > 8 RxMGs * Fisherman      −0.191 <.001
 > 8 RxMGs * Low income      1.461 <.001
Model fitting indices
 −2 Log Likelihood 34 000 763   30 136 192   30 103 521  
 AIC 34 000 805   30 136 234   30 103 563  
 BIC 34 001 052   30 136 481   30 103 810  
  1. a.costs are log-transformed.
  2. Model 1: controlled for age and gender then estimated effect of occupation and income on log-transformed annual total healthcare costs.
  3. Model 2: included all variables appeared in model 1, plus multimorbidity (Rx-MGs classification).
  4. Model 3: included all variables appeared in model 2, plus the interaction between occupation and multimorbidity.