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Table 1 Distribution of selected baseline and current variables between groups with and without multimorbidity among a cohort of the 1988 Armenian earthquake survivors

From: Short and long term determinants of incident multimorbidity in a cohort of 1988 earthquake survivors in Armenia

  n Baseline multi-morbidity (N=124) Incident multimorbidity Total (N=721)
No (N=157) Yes (N=440) P value
Socioeconomic variables:       
Current age, mean (SD) 721 64.5 (10.4) 53.6 (10.5) 58.4 (12.1) 0.000 58.4 (12.0)
Current socio-economic status score, mean (SD) 713 12.0 (3.8) 13.3 (4.2) 12.0 (3.9) 0.000 12.3 (4.0)
Gender:       
   Female, % 721 81.5 62.4 66.4 0.381 68.1
   Male, %   18.5 37.6 33.6   31.9
Current education:       
  Secondary/lower, % 721 83.1 61.6 80.0 0.000 69.1
  University/higher, %   16.9 38.9 20.0   23.6
Current employment:       
  Employed, % 721 41.1 58.6 41.1 0.000 44.9
  Unemployed, %   58.9 41.4 58.9   55.1
Current marital status:       
   Married, % 721 58.9 72.6 72.3 1.000 70.0
  Single/divorced/widowed, %   41.1 27.4 27.7   30.0
Currently living alone, % 720 9.8 7.0 6.1 0.705 6.9
Current low affordability of healthcare, % 720 61.3 35.7 64.9 0.000 57.9
Living standards during post-earthquake decade:       
  Very good/good/average, % 717 45.5 67.5 48.3 0.000 52.0
  Poor/very poor, %   54.5 32.5 51.7   48.0
Baseline living standards:       
  Good/average, % 716 60.5 72.7 73.1 1.000 70.8
  Poor/very poor, %   39.5 27.3 26.9   29.2
Health behavioral variables:       
Current smoking, % 721 5.6 24.2 20.0 0.305 18.4
Current drinking once a week or more, % 716 4.9 16.0 10.3 0.061 10.6
Current binge drinking, % 713 4.9 8.4 7.6 0.728 7.3
Current regular walking (≥3 hours/week), % 716 33.3 45.9 36.0 0.035 37.7
Current uncontrolled use of salt, % 716 22.1 26.1 31.1 0.264 28.5
Baseline smoking, % 721 8.9 24.8 20.2 0.257 19.3
Baseline drinking (perceived), % 721 29.0 23.6 25.5 0.669 25.7
Baseline regular participation in sport, % 716 2.4 9.0 4.3 0.041 5.0
Baseline body mass index, mean (SD) 713 26.2 (4.4) 24.2 (3.9) 25.5 (4.6) 0.002 25.3 (4.5)
Psychosocial variables:       
Current good social support, % 706 49.2 77.9 54.7 0.000 58.8
Current post-traumatic growth score, mean (SD) 694 9.8 (5.0) 10.3 (5.0) 9.6 (5.2) 0.144 9.8 (5.1)
Current dignity score, mean (SD) 698 70.8 (7.7) 71.6 (6.9) 70.1 (6.9) 0.018 70.6 (7.1)
Current memory score, mean (SD) 719 4.6 (2.2) 5.4 (2.1) 4.7 (2.2) 0.001 4.8 (2.2)
Number of stressful life events, mean (SD) 721 9.4 (2.7) 7.5 (2.6) 8.7 (2.7) 0.000 8.6 (2.7)
Earthquake-caused material loss score, mean (SD) 716 3.0 (1.9) 2.5 (2.0) 2.6 (2.0) 0.589 2.7 (2.0)
Earthquake-related deaths in the family, % 721 10.5 7.6 9.8 0.521 9.4
Earthquake-related injuries, % 721 16.9 7.6 6.6 0.713 8.6
  1. N number of respondents in each group, n number of valid responses, SD Standard deviation. P value two-sided.