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Table 2 Logistic regression analyses of factors affecting multimorbidity

From: The social determinants of multimorbidity in South Africa

  Step 1 - Unadjusted Step 2 - Structural Step 3 - Intermediary Step 4 - Full
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
1 Chronic disease         
Age 1.06** (1.05, 1.07) 1.18** (1.14, 1.21)    1.15** (1.11, 1.18)
Gender         
Male 1   1     1  
Female 1.76** (1.50, 2.06) 1.53** (1.30, 1.80)    1.18 (0.98, 1.41)
Race         
African    1     1  
Coloured 1.73** (1.35, 2.20) 1.38* (1.00, 1.90)    1.33 (0.94, 1.86)
Asian/Indian 1.18 (0.77, 1.82) 1.04 (0.57, 1.89)    0.87 (0.39, 1.95)
White 2.07** (1.36, 3.17) 1.44 (0.87, 2.40)    1.80* (1.10, 2.94)
Education         
None    1     1  
Primary 0.85 (0.65, 1.11) 1.24 (0.95, 1.62)    1.30* (1.01, 1.68)
Secondary 0.30** (0.24, 0.38) 0.74* (0.55, 0.99)    0.79 (0.59, 1.05)
Tertiary 0.46* (0.24, 0.86) 0.73 (0.43, 1.25)    0.83 (0.48, 1.43)
Employment         
Unemployed        1  
Employed 0.68** (0.58, 0.79) 0.70** (0.58, 0.86)    0.72** (0.58, 0.90)
Income         
Quintile 1 1   1     1  
Quintile 2 1.16 (0.93, 1.44) 1.02 (0.81, 1.29)    1.03 (0.81, 1.32)
Quintile 3 1.30* (1.03, 1.66) 1.20 (0.93, 1.56)    1.21 (0.93, 1.59)
Quintile 4 1.40* (1.08, 1.83) 1.41* (1.04, 1.92)    1.44* (1.05, 1.97)
Quintile 5 1.32 (0.96, 1.83) 1.24 (0.87, 1.77)    1.20 (0.82, 1.75)
Social assistance         
No    1     1  
Yes 2.67** (2.25, 3.17) 1.48** (1.22, 1.80)    1.30* (1.06, 1.60)
Residence         
Urban 1   1     1  
Rural 0.80* (0.66, 0.97) 0.65** (0.52, 0.81)    0.70** (0.58, 0.85)
Smoking         
No 1     1   1  
Yes 0.86 (0.69, 1.08)    1.13 (0.91, 1.41) 0.97 (0.77, 1.22)
Obesity         
Not obese 1     1   1  
Obese 2.82** (2.37, 3.35)    2.67** (2.21, 3.23) 1.74** (1.43, 2.12)
Depression 1.05** (1.03, 1.07)    1.04** (1.02, 1.05) 1.03** (1.01, 1.05)
Health facility         
No 1     1   1  
Yes 4.94** (4.02, 6.08)    4.56** (3.74, 5.57) 3.77** (3.09, 4.60)
Civic participation         
No 1     1   1  
Yes 1.11 (0.94, 1.30)    1.01 (0.85, 1.19) 0.92 (0.77, 1.10)
2 or more chronic diseases         
Age 1.08** (1.07, 1.09) 1.44** (1.32, 1.57)    1.38** (1.25, 1.51)
Gender         
Male 1   1     1  
Female 2.44** (1.77, 3.35) 1.95** (1.39, 2.73)    1.17 (0.78, 1.75)
Race         
African 1   1     1  
Coloured 1.82** (1.33, 2.49) 1.24 (0.82, 1.87)    1.43 (0.90, 2.26)
Asian/Indian 2.94* (1.07, 8.04) 2.13 (0.69, 6.59)    2.12 (0.59, 7.53)
White 2.21* (1.08, 4.51) 1.12 (0.41, 3.06)    1.92 (0.70, 5.29)
Education         
None 1   1     1  
Primary 0.79 (0.55, 1.13) 1.23 (0.84, 1.80)    1.34 (0.92, 1.97)
Secondary 0.27** (0.17, 0.42) 0.91 (0.56, 1.48)    0.98 (0.58, 1.66)
Tertiary 0.18** (0.09, 0.34) 0.30 (0.08, 1.16)    0.40 (0.11, 1.44)
Employment         
Unemployed 1   1     1  
Employed 0.48** (0.34, 0.70) 0.65* (0.42, 0.99)    0.70 (0.46, 1.07)
Income         
Quintile 1 1   1     1  
Quintile 2 2.80** (1.59, 4.96) 2.14* (1.21, 3.79)    2.23* (1.28, 3.88)
Quintile 3 3.48** (1.97, 6.16) 2.90** (1.63, 5.16)    3.02** (1.71, 5.32)
Quintile 4 3.14** (1.72, 5.75) 2.86** (1.53, 5.33)    2.89** (1.56, 5.33)
Quintile 5 3.02** (1.56, 5.84) 3.69** (1.74, 7.81)    3.17** (1.46, 6.86)
Social assistance         
No 1   1     1  
Yes 5.66** (4.03, 7.97) 2.84** (1.88, 4.30)    2.35** (1.59, 3.49)
Residence         
Urban 1   1     1  
Rural 0.78 (0.58, 1.05) 0.59** (0.42, 0.82)    0.65* (0.46, 0.93)
Smoking         
No 1     1   1  
Yes 0.49** (0.34, 0.71)    0.75 (0.50, 1.12) 0.61* (0.38, 0.96)
Obesity         
Not obese 1     1   1  
Obese 4.80** (3.53, 6.52)    4.28** (3.12, 5.88) 2.33** (1.60, 3.39)
Depression 1.09** (1.05, 1.13)    1.07** (1.03, 1.11) 1.07** (1.02, 1.11)
Health facility visits         
No 1     1   1  
Yes 8.05** (5.98, 10.84)    6.91** (5.07, 9.43) 5.14** (3.75, 7.05)
Civic participation         
No 1     1   1  
Yes 1.28 (0.92, 1.79)    1.10 (0.78, 1.56) 1.03 (0.77, 1.38)
  1. **p<0.001; *p<0.05; OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval.