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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of variables used in the analysis

From: The social determinants of multimorbidity in South Africa

  None One Two or more Total
Chronic diseases (n = 9,195; 79%) (n = 1,980; 17%) (n = 463; 4%) (n = 11,638)
Gender     
Male 3,853 (42% ) 586 (30%) 119 (26%) 4,558 (39%)
Female 5,342 (58%) 1,394 (70%) 344 (74%) 7,080 (61%)
Race     
African 7,528 (82%) 1,463 (74%) 333 (72%) 9,324 (80%)
Coloured 1,121 (12%) 339 (17%) 86 (19%) 1,546 (13%)
Asian/Indian 106 (1%) 26 (1%) 15 (3%) 147 (1%)
White 440 (5 %) 152 (8%) 29 (6%) 621 (5%)
Education     
None 1,142 (12%) 520 (26%) 124 (27%) 1,786 (15%)
Primary 1,986 (22%) 707 (36%) 193 (42%) 2,886 (25%)
Secondary 5,455 (59%) 648 (33%) 124 (27%) 6,227 (54%)
Tertiary 612 (7%) 105 (5%) 22 (5%) 739 (6%)
Employment     
Unemployed 5,614 (61%) 1,391 (70%) 351(76%) 7,356 (63%)
Employed 3,581 (39%) 589 (30%) 112 (24%) 4,282 (37%)
Income (quintiles)     
Quintile 1 1,752 (19%) 292 (15%) 37 (8%) 2,081 (18%)
Quintile 2 1,979 (22%) 426 (22%) 83 (18%) 2,488 (21%)
Quintile 3 2,060 (22%) 467 (24%) 143 (31%) 2,670 (23%)
Quintile 4 2,055 (22%) 505 (26%) 130 (28%) 2,690 (23%)
Quintile 5 1,349 (15%) 290 (15%) 70 (15%) 1,709 (15%)
Social assistance     
No 5,873 (64%) 809 (41%) 131 (28%) 6813 (59%)
Yes 3,324 (36%) 1170 (59%) 331 (72%) 4825 (41%)
Residence     
Urban 4,198 (46%) 999 (50%) 236 (51%) 5,433 (47%)
Rural 4,997 (54%) 981 (50%) 227 (49%) 6,205 (53%)
Smoking     
No 7,098 (77%) 1 560 (79%) 379(82%) 9 036 (78%)
Yes 2,098 (23%) 420 (21%) 84 (18%) 2 602 (22%)
Obesity     
Not obese 7,172 (78%) 1,218 (62%) 238 (51%) 8,628 (74%)
Obese 2,023 (22%) 762 (38%) 225 (49%) 3,010 (26%)
Health facility visits     
No 7,470 (81%) 888 (45%) 150 (32%) 8,508 (73%)
Yes 1,725 (19% ) 1,092 (55%) 313 (68%) 3,130 (27%)
Civic participation     
No 5,945 (65% ) 1,224 (62%) 250 (54%) 7,419 (64%)
Yes 3,250 (35% ) 756 (38%) 213 (46%) 4,219 (36%)