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Table 1 The Human Development Index (HDI) in 1999 and the distribution of some available confounding factors for the countries/regions involved in the study

From: Worldwide socioeconomic status and stroke mortality: an ecological study

Country/region* Stroke mortality (1/100,000), 45–54 yrs HDI 1999 SBP HPT (%) SMK (%) SF** ALC** OB (%)
Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women
South America
ARG 59.83 34.30 0.842 120 119 .. .. 46.8 34.0 4.45 8.55 .. ..
BRA 66.00 49.37 0.750 124 119 .. .. 38.2 29.3 3.10 5.30 8.9 13.1
CHL 30.37 25.13 0.825 119 116 .. .. 26.0 18.3 2.41 6.02 19.0 25.0
COL 30.23 31.40 0.765 122 119 .. .. 22.3 23.5 6.62 5.90 .. ..
CRI 15.20 17.60 0.821 122 117 .. .. 28.6 6.6 8.85 5.50 .. ..
ECU 28.87 23.73 0.726 124 122 .. .. 45.5 17.4 17.63 2.00 .. ..
SLV 20.13 15.30 0.701 ..   .. .. 38.0 12.0 3.98 3.50 .. ..
MEX 23.47 20.20 0.790 125 121 38.6 30.1 51.2 18.4 4.60 4.62 18.6 28.1
PAN 24.37 17.63 0.784 ..   ..   56.0 20.0 6.55 6.00 .. ..
PRY 40.10 50.37 0.738 122 128 32.4 41.9 24.1 5.5 5.81 6.70 .. ..
VEN 40.93 34.30 0.765 120 117 47.7 32.2 41.8 39.2 4.35 8.80 .. ..
URY 45.63 37.67 0.828 ..   ..   31.7 14.3 3.04 7.00 17.0 19.0
Mean 35. 43 29. 75 0. 778 122 120 39. 6 34. 7 37. 5 19. 9 5. 95 5. 82 15. 9 21. 3
Asia
HKG 20.37 11.50 0.880 130 123 .. .. 27.1 2.9 .. .. .. ..
ISR 10.23 7.13 0.893 128 121 .. .. 33.0 24.0 8.87 2.00 19.8 25.4
KOR 53.83 26.23 0.875 126 121 21.8 19.4 65.1 4.8 5.88 7.70 1.7 3.0
JPN 36.87 18.07 0.928 127 119 42.7 35.0 52.8 13.4 2.83 7.38 ..
SGP 20.57 12.03 0.876 124 119 .. .. 26.9 3.1 .. 2.73 5.3 6.7
Mean 28. 37 14. 99 0. 890 127 121 32. 3 27. 2 41. 0 9. 6 5. 86 4. 95 8. 9 11. 7
Africa
MUS 98.53 56.07 0.765 127 124 .. .. 44.8 2.9 3.51 3.20 8.0 20.0
Europe              
AUT 17.10 13.10 0.921 129 122 .. .. 30.0 19.0 19.49 12.58 .. ..
BEL 18.13 13.40 0.935 127 119 .. .. 30.0 26.0 34.16 10.06 10.3 11.0
DEN 21.90 11.90 0.921 122 115 .. .. 32.0 29.0 22.59 11.93 .. ..
FIN 25.63 16.63 0.925 131 125 .. .. 27.0 20.0 12.86 10.43 20.8 23.9
FRA 15.93 8.13 0.924 129 125 .. .. 38.6 30.3 19.79 13.54 .. ..
DEU 15.43 10.67 0.921 134 130 55.4 56.6 39.0 31.0 24.68 12.90 13.6 12.3
GRC 26.10 14.43 0.881 131 124 18.5 15.9 47.0 29.0 3.57 9.30 .. ..
HUN 66.67 29.10 0.829 134 126 86.2 .. 44.0 27.0 24.03 11.92 18.4 20.4
IRL 16.70 14.70 0.913 ..   .. .. 32.0 31.0 17.58 14.50 14.0 12.0
ITA 15.27 9.97 0.909 129 122 42.0 43.3 32.4 17.3 12.96 9.14 ..
NLD 14.47 15.83 0.931 131 122 .. .. 37.0 29.0 14.68 9.74 10.2 11.9
NOR 13.67 9.60 0.939 ..   .. .. 31.0 32.0 17.34 5.80 6.8 5.8
PRT 38.73 20.57 0.874 127 124 .. .. 30.2 7.1 15.70 12.49 .. ..
ESP 17.20 9.23 0.908 123 118 41.7 39.0 42.1 24.7 5.42 12.25 12.3 12.1
SWE 15.70 11.37 0.936 131 125 39.6 40.9 19.0 19.0 18.39 6.90 10.4 9.5
CHE 7.70 7.53 0.924 126 115 .. .. 39.0 28.0 12.57 11.53 7.9 7.5
GBR 17.93 15.20 0.923 132 127 34.7 25.7 27.0 26.0 8.70 10.39 .. ..
Mean 21. 43 13. 61 0. 913 129 123 45. 4 36. 9 34. 0 25. 0 16. 74 10. 91 12. 5 12. 6
USA, CAN, AUS & NZL
USA 17.70 14.37 0.934 123 119 21.0 19.7 25.7 21.5 6.37 8.51 25.8  
CAN 9.93 8.93 0.936 126 118 23.5 15.6 27.0 23.0 16.37 8.26 15.9 31.8
AUS 9.57 7.77 0.936 118 125 30.8 20.1 21.1 18.0 12.75 9.19 14.8 13.9
NZL 14.27 14.03 0.913 134 123 .. .. 25.0 25.0 14.17 9.80 21.9 15.3
Mean 12. 87 11. 28 0. 930 125 121 25. 1 18. 5 25. 0 22. 0 12. 42 8. 94 19. 6 23. 2
  1. *ARG Argentina, AUS Australia, AUT Austria, BEL Belgium, BRA Brazil, CAN Canada, CHE, Switzerland, CHL, Chile; COL, Colombia; CRI, Costa Rica, DEU, Germany; DNK Denmark; ECU Ecuador, ESP Spain, FIN Finland, FRA France, GRC Greece, GBR United Kingdom, HKG Hong Kong, HRV Costa Rica, HUN Hungary, IRL Ireland, ITA Italy, ISR Israel, JPN Japan, KOR Korea, Rep. of; MUS Mauritius, MEX Mexico, NLD Netherlands, NOR Norway, NZL New Zealand, PAN Panama PRT Portugal, PRY Paraguay, SGP Singapore SLV El Salvador, SWE Sweden, USA United States of America, VEN Venezuela, URY Uruguay.
  2. OB Adults (≥15 years) who are obese (%) in the latest available year.
  3. SBP Mean adult SBP (mmHg) in 2002.
  4. HPT The latest available hypertension prevalence.
  5. SMK The latest available adult smoking prevalence.
  6. SF Saturated fat (/capita/year (kg)) in 1999.
  7. ALC Per capita alcohol consumption (>15 years) (in litres of pure alcohol) in 2000–2001.
  8. ** Data available irrespective of men and women.