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Table 4 Prevalence rates of underweight, stunting, and wasting in indigenous children < 60 months, according to maternal and child characteristics, First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition, Brazil, 2008-2009

From: Nutritional status of indigenous children: findings from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil

  N Underweight Stunting Wasting
Prevalence PR Prevalence PR Prevalence PR
(%) (CI 95%) (%) (CI 95%) (%) (CI 95%)
Maternal age (years)    p = 0.66 **   p = 0.08 **   p = 0.06 **
  < 20 814 5.2 1.00 26.6 1.00 2.5 1.00
(reference) (reference) (reference)
  20-29 3097 5.7 1.08 24.5 0.92 1.1 0.43
(0.72-1.64) (0.79-1.08) (0.23-0.83)
  30-39 1673 6.6 1.27 25.8 0.97 1.1 0.46
(0.81-1.99) (0.79-1.20) (0.19-1.08)
  ≥ 40 455 6.0 1.15 31.3 1.18 1.1 0.47
(0.71-1.87) (0.96-1.45) (0.16-1.36)
Maternal anemia    p = 0.006 *   p < 0.001 *   p = 0.15 *
  No 3638 5.1 1.00 23.1 1.00 1.2 1.00
(reference) (reference) (reference)
  Moderate 2081 6.7 1.32 28.2 1.22 1.6 1.34
(1.01-1.72) (1.07-1.38) (0.96-1.86)
  Severe 223 12.2 2.38 44.2 1.91 0.7 0.61
(1.08-5.24) (1.46-2.50) (0.14-2.66)
Birthweight (grams)    p < 0.001 **   p < 0.001 **   p < 0.001 **
  < 2500 298 17.5 10.0 47.2 3.59 3.3 5.80
(5.67-17.5) (2.78-4.63) (1.96-17.15)
  2500-2999 935 8.9 5.06 32.3 2.45 2.1 3.77
(2.83-9.06) (1.93-3.10) (1.37-10.34)
  3000-3499 1607 4.2 2.37 19.9 1.51 1.1 1.91
(1.38-4.06) (1.18-1.94) (0.68-5.39)
  ≥ 3500 1115 1.8 1.00 13.2 1.00 0.6 1.00
(reference) (reference) (reference)
Hospitalization in the prior 12 months    p = 0.001*   p < 0.001 *   p = 0.59 *
  No 4895 5.1 1.00 23.7 1.00 1.2 1.00
(reference) (reference) (reference)
  Yes 1119 9.0 1.78 33.8 1.43 1.5 1.27
(1.27-2.48) (1.22-1.67) (0.53-3.08)
  1. PR, Prevalence ratio.
  2. CI, Confidence interval.
  3. Maximum N for each category, which may vary between variables due to missing data.
  4. * χ2 test of heterogeneity.
  5. ** χ2 test for linear trend.