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Table 3 Different subgroups of women at heightened risk from cervical cancer

From: Applying a gender lens on human papillomavirus infection: cervical cancer screening, HPV DNA testing, and HPV vaccination

Subgroup Main findings
Perimenopausal women - increased HPV prevalence [56]
- both exogenous and endogenous hormones were associated with HPV infection [56]
Women over 55 years of age - rarely initiate conversations on sexual matters [25]
- physicians tend to initiate these discussions more with African American women [25]
Incarcerated women - these women (but also incarcerated men), as well as those with a partner being released from prison are at risk due to their sexual behaviour [19, 70]
- more frequent history of abnormal Pap smears, particularly those exposed to violence [76], however they are also more receptive to prevention [70]
Women with disabilities - may have lower screening rates due to difficulties associated with pelvic examinations[71]
  - Canadian women with traumatic spinal cord injury did not have lower screening rates, possibly due to frequent visits to physicians [71]
  - liquid cytology Pap smears are a reasonable alternative for screening this subgroup of women [57]