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Table 2 Correlates of expressed racial identity and hypertension

From: Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

Variable   Expressed racial identity    Hypertension
   Asian Black South Asian White Other yes no
Age in years - n (sd) 42.5(14.3) 40.5(11.2) 41.1(14.1) 53.6(14.8) 44.6(15.2) 61.75(12.5) 48.7(14.8)
   F = 35.24, df = 4,1539, p < 0.001    F = 200.43, df = 1, 1542, p < 0.001
Gender female n (%) 50(71.4) 37(78.7) 31(45.6) 817(66.9) 84(61.3) 196(19.2) 823(80.8)
  male 20(28.6) 10(21.3) 37(54.4) 405(33.1) 53(38.7) 110(20.9) 415(79.1)
   Chi - square = 18.68, df = 4, p < 0.01    Chi - square = 0.64, df = 1, p > 0.10
Marital status married or common law 32(45.7) 16(34.0) 47(69.1) 716(58.6) 79(57.7) 157(17.6) 733(82.4)
  separated, divorced or widowed 10(14.3) 9(19.2) 9(13.2) 303(24.8) 19(13.9) 114(32.6) 236(67.4)
  never been married 28(40.0) 22(46.8) 12(17.7) 203(16.6) 39(28.5) 35(11.5) 269(88.5)
   Chi - square = 63.83, df = 8, p < 0.001    Chi - square = 51.67, df = 2, p < 0.001
Immigrant status born in Canada 17(24.3) 12(25.5) 15(22.1) 962(78.7) 59(43.1) 211(19.8) 854(80.2)
immigrated > 20 years ago 23(32.9) 24(51.1) 21(30.9) 213(17.4) 40(29.2) 81(25.2) 240(74.8)
immigrated between 10 and 20 years ago 16(22.9) 6(12.8) 15(22.1) 22(1.8) 21(15.3) 8(10.0) 72(90.0)
immigrated < 10 years ago 14(20.0) 5(10.6) 17(25.0) 25(2.1) 17(12.4) 6(7.7) 72(92.3)
   Chi - square = 388.20, df = 12, p < 0.001    Chi - square = 17.99, df = 3, p < 0.001
City of residence Toronto 20(28.6) 45(95.7) 26(38.2) 539(44.1) 76(55.5) 123(17.4) 583(82.6)
Vancouver 50(71.4) 2(4.3) 42(61.8) 683(55.9) 61(44.5) 183(21.8) 655(78.2)
   Chi - square = 63.76, df = 4, p < 0.001    Chi - square = 4.70, df = 1, p < 0.05
Educational attainment high school or less 11(15.7) 18(38.3) 16(23.5) 318(26.0) 29(21.2) 95(24.3) 297(75.8)
CC, TS or some university 12(17.1) 16(34.0) 15(22.1) 328(26.8) 46(33.6) 93(22.3) 324(77.7)
bachelor’s degree 35(50.0) 12(25.5) 21(30.9) 343(28.1) 42(30.7) 76(16.8) 377(83.2)
post - graduate degree 12(17.1) 1(2.1) 16(23.5) 233(19.1) 20(14.6) 42(14.9) 240(85.1)
   Chi - square = 33.56, df = 12, p < 0.01    Chi - square = 13.37, df = 3, p < 0.01
Household income less than $40,000 9(12.9) 17(36.2) 8(11.8) 181(14.8) 25(18.3) 58(24.2) 182(75.8)
$40,000 - $59,999 15(21.4) 6(12.8) 10(14.7) 144(11.8) 12(8.8) 41(21.9) 146(78.1)
$60,000 - $79,999 8(11.4) 6(12.8) 8(11.8) 158(12.9) 22(16.1) 33(16.3) 169(83.7)
$80,000 - $99,000 7(10.0) 3(6.4) 10(14.7) 128(10.5) 13(9.5) 26(16.2) 135(83.9)
$100,000 - 149,999 8(11.4) 5(10.6) 8(11.8) 216(17.1) 15(11.0) 50(19.8) 202(80.2)
$150,000 or more 4(5.7) 1(2.1) 8(11.8) 217(17.8) 15(11.0) 43(17.6) 202(78.6)
missing 19(27.1) 9(19.2) 16(23.5) 178(14.6) 35(25.6) 55(21.4) 202(78.6)
   Chi -square = 63.69, df = 24, p < 0.001    Chi - square = 7.48, df = 6, p > 0.10
Major discrimination no experiences 37(52.9) 14(29.8) 30(44.1) 534(43.7) 45(32.9) 130(19.7) 530(80.3)
one experience 19(27.1) 7(14.9) 15(22.1) 315(25.8) 39(28.5) 85(21.5) 310(78.5)
two experiences 7(10.0) 9(19.2) 9(13.2) 177(14.5) 20(14.6) 44(19.8) 178(80.2)
three or more experiences 2(2.9) 10(21.3) 10(14.7) 149(12.2) 22(16.1) 37(19.2) 156(80.8)
missing 5(7.1) 7(14.9) 4(5.9) 47(3.9) 11(8.0) 10(13.5) 64(86.5)
   Chi - square = 37.77, df = 16, p < 0.01    Chi - square = 2.63, df = 4, p > 0.10
Racial/ethnic major discriminatory experiences no experiences 51(72.9) 21(44.7) 43(63.2) 1113(91.1) 95(69.3) 274(20.7) 1049(79.3)
one experience 9(12.9) 12(25.5) 13(19.1) 57(4.7) 21(15.3) 16(14.3) 96(85.7)
two or more experiences 5(7.1) 7(14.9) 8(11.8) 5(0.4) 10(7.3) 6(17.1) 29(82.9)
missing 4(7.1) 7(14.9) 4(5.9) 47(3.9) 11(8.0) 10(13.5) 64(86.5)
   Chi - square = 202.10, df = 12, p < 0.001    Chi - square = 4.83, df = 3, p > 0.10
Routine discrimination index 0 14(20.0) 2(4.3) 13(19.1) 316(25.9) 29(21.2) 79(21.1) 295(78.9)
1 or 2 18(25.7) 6(12.8) 24(35.3) 368(30.1) 28(20.4) 97(21.9) 347(78.2)
3 or 4 10(14.3) 11(23.4) 7(10.3) 233(19.1) 17(12.4) 56(20.1) 222(79.9)
5 or greater 22(31.4) 24(51.1) 21(30.9) 278(22.8) 49(35.8) 58(14.7) 336(85.3)
  missing 6(8.6) 4(8.5) 3(4.4) 27(2.2) 14(10.2) 16(29.6) 38(70.4)
   Chi - square = 82.29, df = 20, p < 0.001    Chi - square = 11.28, df = 4, p < 0.05
Daily stress not stressful 10(14.3) 8(17.0) 16(23.5) 201(16.5) 25(18.3) 65(25.0) 195(75.0)
  a bit stressful 44(62.9) 26(55.3) 35(51.5) 626(51.2) 73(53.3) 148(18.4) 656(81.6)
  quite or extremely stressful 16(22.9) 13(27.7) 17(25.0) 395(32.3) 39(28.5) 93(19.4) 387(80.6)
   Chi - square = 7.64, df = 8, p > 0.10    Chi - square = 5.46, df = 2, p > 0.05