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Table 1 Characteristics of the sample ( n =1,544)

From: Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

Variable   City of residence
   Toronto Vancouver
   n(%) n(%)
Expressed racial identity Aboriginal 3(0.4) 4(0.5)
  Asian 20(2.8) 50(6.0)
  Black 45(6.4) 2(0.2)
  South Asian 26(3.7) 42(5.0)
  Southeast Asian 10(1.4) 10(1.2)
  White 539(76.4) 683(81.5)
  Other 16(2.3) 19(2.3)
  multiple responses 20(2.8) 12(1.4)
  missing 27(3.8) 16(1.9)
Age aged 19-34 144(20.4) 104(12.4)
  aged 35-44 133(18.8) 137(16.4)
  aged 45 - 54 163(23.1) 199(23.8)
  aged 55-64 141(20.0) 255(26.9)
  aged 65 and other 125(17.7) 173(20.6)
Gender male 251(35.6) 274(32.7)
  female 455(64.4) 564(67.3)
Marital status married or common law 368(52.1) 522(62.3)
  separated, divorced or widowed 161(22.8) 189(22.6)
  never been married 177(25.1) 127(15.2)
Immigrant status born in Canada 457(64.7) 608(72.6)
  immigrated > 20 years ago 169(23.9) 152(18.1)
  immigrated between 10 and 20 years ago 39(5.5) 41(4.9)
  immigrated < 10 years ago 41(5.8) 37(4.4)
Educational attainment high school or less 157(22.2) 235(28.0)
  CC, TS or some university 160(22.7) 257(30.7)
  bachelor’s degree 237(33.6) 216(25.8)
  post - graduate degree 152(21.5) 130(15.5)
Household income less than $40,000 110(15.6) 130(15.5)
  $40,000 - $59,999 89(12.6) 98(11.7)
  $60,000 - $79,999 103(14.6) 99(11.7)
  $80,000 - $99,000 72(10.2) 89(10.6)
  $100,000 - $149,999 101(14.3) 151(18.0)
  $150,000 or more 124(17.6) 121(14.4)
  missing 107(15.2) 150(17.9)
Major discrimination no experiences 276(39.1) 384(45.8)
  one experience 194(17.5) 201(24.0)
  two experiences 106(15.0) 116(13.8)
  three or more experiences 88(12.5) 105(12.5)
  missing 42(6.0) 32(3.8)
Racial/ethnic major discriminatory experiences no experiences 588(83.3) 735(87.7)
  one experience 55(7.8) 57(6.8)
  two or more experiences 21(3.0) 14(1.7)
  missing 42(6.0) 32(3.8)
Routine discrimination index 0 148(21.0) 226(27.0)
  1 or 2 194(27.5) 250(29.8)
  3 or 4 131(18.6) 147(17.5)
  5 or greater 205(29.0) 189(22.6)
  missing 28(4.0) 26(3.1)
Daily stress not stressful 99(14.0) 161(19.2)
  a bit stressful 367(52.0) 437(52.2)
  quite or extremely stressful 240(34.0) 240(28.6)