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Table 4 Determinants of Self-reported health and health service utilization by various characteristics (n = 778)

From: Self-reported chronic diseases and health status and health service utilization - Results from a community health survey in Singapore

Characteristics Categories Self- rated health (1–6), OR 95% CI for OR Inpatient utilization, OR 95% CI for OR Outpatient utilization, OR 95% CI for OR
    Upper Lower   Upper Lower   Upper Lower
Age-group* <25 1    1    1   
  25 - 44 2.27 0.84 6.14 0.51 0.16 1.63 1.66 0.57 4.87
  45 - 64 1.78 0.66 4.77 0.49 0.17 1.49 1.31 0.45 3.83
  ≥65 1.38 0.49 3.92 0.44 0.13 1.46 2.09 0.59 7.35
Gender Males 1    1    1   
  Females 0.94 0.65 1.35 0.68 0.39 1.17 1.55 0.92 2.61
Ethnicity Chinese 1    1    1   
  Indian 0.92 0.52 1.61 2.35 1.15 4.77 1.02 0.45 2.35
  Others 0.98 0.42 2.29 0.70 0.16 3.19 0.42 0.15 1.17
  Malay 0.57 0.37 0.88 1.23 0.64 2.35 1.49 0.84 2.64
Highest educational level attained No formal education 1.16 0.70 1.92 1.06 0.52 2.16 0.41 0.20 0.81
  Primary 1.12 0.67 1.86 0.45 0.20 1.02 0.52 0.27 1.00
  ≥ Secondary education 1    1    1   
Work status Working full-time or part-time 1    1    1   
  Retiree 0.68 0.23 1.96 0.23 0.03 1.75 0.71 0.17 3.00
  Housewife 0.89 0.30 2.66 0.32 0.04 2.36 0.86 0.21 3.52
  Student or national serviceman 0.37 0.06 2.41 0.00 - - 4.89 0.75 31.83
  Unemployed 1.05 0.37 2.97 0.39 0.06 2.78 0.84 0.24 2.99
Personal Monthly Income <S$500 3.11 0.94 10.27 8.15 0.90 73.78 0.76 0.18 3.17
  S$500 - 999 1.25 0.63 2.49 2.09 0.65 6.65 0.66 0.32 1.39
  ≥S$1,000 1    1    1   
Chronic diseases Presence of one or more chronic disease 3.05 2.09 4.44 2.25 1.25 4.03 36.17 17.31 75.55
  No chronic disease 1    1    1   
  1. * Age not available for five respondents, income not available for 3 respondents.
  2. OR: Odds ratio, CI: Confidence Interval, Income in Singapore dollars.
  3. SRH: Self-reported health; score of 1 indicates poor health and a score of 10 indicates best possible health. Scores 1–6 indicate fair to poor self-rated health status.