Skip to main content

Table 4 Predictors of health insurance coverage according to GEE model and hierarchical logistic regression in difference-in-difference format

From: Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

  GEE model Hierarchical model
  Odds Ratio Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI P value Odds Ratio Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI P value
Intercept 5.288 3.074 9.097 <0.001 4.924 3.021 8.026 <0.001
Age 1.008 1.005 1.011 <0.001 1.008 1.005 1.011 <0.001
Household size 0.998 0.971 1.026 0.908 0.997 0.969 1.026 0.894
Male 1.000 0.921 1.086 0.996 0.999 0.918 1.088 0.981
Not married 0.740 0.660 0.829 <0.001 0.739 0.661 0.826 <0.001
Low education 0.717 0.562 0.915 0.007 0.719 0.572 0.904 0.005
Median Education 0.692 0.545 0.879 0.003 0.694 0.555 0.87 0.002
Year of 2009 22.809 20.041 25.959 <0.001 17.903 16.175 19.816 <0.001
Income increase by 10000 RMB 1.255 1.130 1.393 <0.001 1.255 1.177 1.339 <0.001
Interaction of income*Y2009 0.797 0.714 0.890 <0.001 0.797 0.735 0.865 <0.001
Not retired 0.216 0.178 0.263 <0.001 0.219 0.185 0.259 <0.001
Occupation (Technicians as reference)
 Professionals 2.413 1.766 3.297 <0.001 2.392 1.807 3.167 <0.001
 Officials 2.187 1.656 2.887 <0.001 2.166 1.673 2.804 <0.001
 Farmers 0.892 0.752 1.058 0.190 0.889 0.752 1.052 0.170
 Service sector workers 0.464 0.378 0.570 <0.001 0.464 0.384 0.561 <0.001
 Others 0.555 0.424 0.728 <0.001 0.555 0.427 0.722 <0.001
 Not working 0.423 0.354 0.505 <0.001 0.423 0.358 0.501 <0.001
Geographic locations (City 1 in Liaoning Province as reference)
City 2 in Liaoning Province 0.674 0.408 1.112 0.122 a a a a
County 1 in Liaoning Province 2.000 1.176 3.402 0.011 a a a a
County 2 in Liaoning Province 4.886 2.548 9.371 <0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Liaoning Province 1.999 1.181 3.382 0.01 a a a a
County 4 in Liaoning Province 1.045 0.621 1.757 0.869 a a a a
City 1 in Heilongjiang 0.384 0.247 0.597 <0.001 a a a a
City2 in Heilongjiang 0.420 0.267 0.661 <0.001 a a a a
County 1 in Heilongjiang 2.749 1.420 5.321 0.003 a a a a
County 2 in Heilongjiang 0.113 0.071 0.179 <0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Heilongjiang 1.916 1.104 3.324 0.021 a a a a
County 4 in Heilongjiang 2.587 1.441 4.644 0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Jiangsu 4.891 2.620 9.130 <0.001 a a a a
City2 in Jiangsu 0.389 0.239 0.634 <0.001 a a a a
County 1 in Jiangsu 6.468 3.551 11.784 <0.001 a a a a
County 2 in Jiangsu 4.254 2.323 7.791 <0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Jiangsu 1.022 0.604 1.729 0.936 a a a a
County 4 in Jiangsu 7.741 4.188 14.311 <0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Shandong 0.811 0.479 1.373 0.436 a a a a
City2 in Shandong 0.401 0.246 0.655 <0.001 a a a a
County 1 in Shandong 6.542 3.581 11.954 <0.001 a a a a
County 2 in Shandong 0.263 0.174 0.398 <0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Shandong 2.793 1.620 4.812 <0.001 a a a a
County 4 in Shandong 15.210 7.369 31.394 <0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Henan 1.031 0.625 1.700 0.906 a a a a
City2 in Henan 0.445 0.281 0.705 0.001 a a a a
County 1 in Henan 0.248 0.160 0.383 <0.001 a a a a
County 2 in Henan 0.301 0.199 0.457 <0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Henan 2.219 1.346 3.657 0.002 a a a a
County 4 in Henan 0.242 0.158 0.371 <0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Hubei 0.914 0.562 1.486 0.717 a a a a
City2 in Hubei 0.493 0.301 0.809 0.005 a a a a
County 1 in Hubei 0.153 0.098 0.239 <0.001 a a a a
County 2 in Hubei 2.491 1.489 4.169 0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Hubei 4.937 2.535 9.616 <0.001 a a a a
County 4 in Hubei 15.349 7.374 31.950 <0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Hunan 1.123 0.685 1.842 0.645 a a a a
City2 in Hunan 0.568 0.350 0.924 0.023 a a a a
County 1 in Hunan 0.246 0.160 0.377 <0.001 a a a a
County 2 in Hunan 1.409 0.843 2.357 0.191 a a a a
County 3 in Hunan 0.228 0.148 0.352 <0.001 a a a a
County 4 in Hunan 0.287 0.184 0.449 <0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Guangxi 0.186 0.113 0.308 <0.001 a a a a
City2 in Guangxi 0.231 0.146 0.367 <0.001 a a a a
County 1 in Guangxi 0.887 0.537 1.464 0.638 a a a a
County 2 in Guangxi 0.426 0.257 0.707 0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Guangxi 0.711 0.434 1.163 0.174 a a a a
County 4 in Guangxi 0.325 0.213 0.496 <0.001 a a a a
City 1 in Guizhou 1.163 0.712 1.899 0.546 a a a a
City2 in Guizhou 0.502 0.295 0.855 0.011 a a a a
County 1 in Guizhou 2.719 1.564 4.725 <0.001 a a a a
County 2 in Guizhou 0.210 0.136 0.323 <0.001 a a a a
County 3 in Guizhou 0.256 0.166 0.393 <0.001 a a a a
County 4 in Guizhou 1.071 0.656 1.750 0.784 a a a a
  1. a Random effect of geographical locations (18 cities and 36 counties) was controlled for hierarchical model.