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Table 3 Predictors of health insurance coverage according to GEE model and hierarchical logistic regression in difference-in-difference format

From: Income-related inequality in health insurance coverage: analysis of China Health and Nutrition Survey of 2006 and 2009

  GEE model Hierarchical model
  Odds Ratio Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI P value Odds Ratio Lower 95% CI Upper 95% CI P value
Intercept 5.288 3.074 9.097 <0.001 4.924 3.021 8.026 <0.001
Age 1.008 1.005 1.011 <0.001 1.008 1.005 1.011 <0.001
Household size 0.998 0.971 1.026 0.908 0.997 0.969 1.026 0.894
Male 1.000 0.921 1.086 0.996 0.999 0.918 1.088 0.981
Not married 0.740 0.660 0.829 <0.001 0.739 0.661 0.826 <0.001
Low education 0.717 0.562 0.915 0.007 0.719 0.572 0.904 0.005
Median Education 0.692 0.545 0.879 0.003 0.694 0.555 0.87 0.002
Year of 2009 22.809 20.041 25.959 <0.001 17.903 16.175 19.816 <0.001
Income increase by 10 K RMB 1.255 1.130 1.393 <0.001 1.255 1.177 1.339 <0.001
Interaction of income*Y2009 0.797 0.714 0.890 <0.001 0.797 0.735 0.865 <0.001
Not retired 0.216 0.178 0.263 <0.001 0.219 0.185 0.259 <0.001
Occupation (Technicians as reference)
 Professionals 2.413 1.766 3.297 <0.001 2.392 1.807 3.167 <0.001
 Officials 2.187 1.656 2.887 <0.001 2.166 1.673 2.804 <0.001
 Farmers 0.892 0.752 1.058 0.190 0.889 0.752 1.052 0.170
 Service sector workers 0.464 0.378 0.570 <0.001 0.464 0.384 0.561 <0.001
 Others 0.555 0.424 0.728 <0.001 0.555 0.427 0.722 <0.001
 Not working 0.423 0.354 0.505 <0.001 0.423 0.358 0.501 <0.001
Set of 53 geographic locations a a a a b b b b
(City 1 in Liaoning as reference)         
  1. a The GEE estimates for 53 variables for geographic locations are omitted; the full GEE model is presented in the Appendix.
  2. b Random effect of geographic variations (18 cities and 36 counties) was controlled for hierarchical model.