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Table 2 Attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among respondents in the rural and urban areas of two districts of Pakistan's Punjab province (n = 1080)

From: Urban-rural inequities in knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis in two districts of Pakistan's Punjab province

Attitude and Practices Urban
(n = 432)
Rural
(n = 648)
P value OR (95% CI)
  n (%) n (%)   
What would you do if you suspect you had symptoms of TB? ( Intended health seeking behavior)     
   Health Facility 419 (97.0) 610 (94.1) P = 0.030 2.01 (1.06-3.82)
   Pharmacy 9 (2.1) 29 (4.5) P = 0.037 0.45 (0.21-0.97)
   Traditional Healer 2 (0.5) 23 (3.5) P = 0.001 0.13 (0.03-0.54)
   Self Treatment 1 (0.2) 9 (1.4) P = 0.058 0.17 (0.02-1.31)
   Others 6 (1.4) 8 (1.2) P = 0.826 1.13 (0.39-3.27)
When you will go to a health facility after getting TB? ( Intended health seeking behavior)     
   When treatment on my own does not work 7 (1.6) 34 (5.2) P = 0.002 0.30 (0.13-0.68)
   When symptoms last for 3 to 4 weeks 63 (14.6) 120 (18.5) P = 0.091 0.75 (0.54-1.05)
   As soon as I realize that my symptoms are of TB 361 (83.6) 484 (74.7) P = 0.001 1.72 (1.26-2.35)
   I would not go to Doctor 1 (0.2) 10 (1.5) P = 0.058 0.15 (0.02-1.16)
How a TB patient is regarded in your community? (Community stigma)     
   Most people reject 215 (49.8) 302 (46.6) P = 0.308 1.14 (0.89-1.45)
   Most people friendly but avoid 138 (31.9) 210 (32.4) P = 0.873 0.98 (0.75-1.27)
   Most people support and help 79 (18.3) 136 (21.0) P = 0.276 0.84 (0.62-1.15)
What would be your reaction if you were found out that you have TB? (Personal stigma)     
   Shame and/or embarrassment 361 (83.6) 463 (71.5) P < 0.001 2.03 (1.50-2.76)
   Fear and/or hopelessness 151 (35.0) 237 (36.6) P = 0.587 0.93 (0.73-1.20)
   Others 28 (6.5) 102 (15.7) P < 0.001 0.37 (0.24-0.58)
How your relationship would changes if your close family member gets TB? (Family support to the patient)     
   Sympathy, support and help 352 (81.5) 481 (74.2) P = 0.005 1.53 (1.13-2.06)
   Hate 6 (1.4) 28 (4.3) P = 0.007 0.31 (0.13-0.76)
   Friendly but avoid 74 (17.1) 139 (21.5) P = 0.081 0.76 (0.55-1.04)