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Table 3 Odds of Institutional Delivery in Jhang District, Pakistan (n = 4,051)

From: Changes in the proportion of facility-based deliveries and related maternal health services among the poor in rural Jhang, Pakistan: results from a demand-side financing intervention

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Wealth quintiles     
   Fifth/poorest 0.32*** 0.56*** 0.51*** 0.57***
   Fourth 0.46*** 0.76* 0.76* 0.67***
   Third 0.51*** 0.79* 0.79* 0.79*
   Second 0.61*** 0.83 0.83 0.84
   First/non-poor 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Intervention Group and Time of Survey     
Group     
   Control 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
   Intervention 1.63* 1.53 1.47 1.45
Time/month of Survey     
   Pre-intervention (December 2009)   1.00 1.00 1.00
   Post-intervention (December 2010) 1.42*** 1.43*** 1.38*** 1.36***
Maternal Factors     
Mother's Age     
   24 or younger   1.00 1.00 1.00
   25-29   1.15 1.15 1.15
   30 or older   1.44*** 1.44*** 1.44***
Parity/Living children     
   1   1.00 1.00 1.00
   2   0.63*** 0.63*** 0.62***
   3   0.47*** 0.47*** 0.47***
   4   0.37*** 0.37*** 0.37***
   5 or more   0.32*** 0.32*** 0.32***
Mother's education     
   None   1.00 1.00 1.00
   Primary   1.33* 1.32* 1.33*
   Middle   1.30* 1.30* 1.31*
   Secondary   1.96*** 1.95*** 1.97***
   Matriculate or higher   2.43*** 2.44*** 2.46***
Factors unrelated to the voucher scheme     
Travel time to nearest health facility     
   More than 15 minutes   1.00 1.00 1.00
   15 minutes or less   1.03 1.03 1.03
Television viewership     
   Never or sometimes   1.00 1.00 1.00
   Daily   1.23* 1.24* 1.23*
Interaction 1 (intervention*time*5th quintile)    1.41*  
Interaction 2 (intervention*time*4th quintile)     1.64**
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.