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Table 5 The Effect of NHIS on Various Indicators of Catastrophic OOP Expenditure on Health

From: The financial protection effect of Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme: evidence from a study in two rural districts

Thresholds 5% income 10% non-food expenditure 10% income 20% non-food expenditure
  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Has HI from NHIS -0.010 -0.007 -0.006 -0.005
  (0.004)*** (0.003)** (0.003)* (0.002)**
Chronic health condition 0.015 0.014 0.016 0.014
  (0.017) (0.016) (0.016) (0.013)
Bad health (self-assessed) 0.048 0.042 0.041 0.033
  (0.031) (0.028) (0.028) (0.023)
Offinso district 0.013 0.012 0.011 0.010
  (0.003)*** (0.003)*** (0.002)*** (0.002)***
Other individual and household characteristics Yes Yes Yes Yes
Assets Yes Yes Yes Yes
N 11,617 11,617 11,617 11.617
  1. Note:Individual and household characteristics include gender, ethnic Akan, age, age squared, if a member in solidarity scheme, household size, and gender, education, and occupation of the household head.
  2. Assets include radio, TV, fridge, telephone, bicycle, motorbike, and car. Household living conditions include whether there is electricity, floor type, type of water, and fuel used for cooking; owning a house, having farmland, and number of rooms in the house.
  3. Figures presented are marginal effects of NHIS and their robust standard errors (in parentheses), adjusted for sampling weight and clustering effect at the municipality level.
  4. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1