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Table 4 The Effect of NHIS on Average OOP Expenditure (Cedi)

From: The financial protection effect of Ghana National Health Insurance Scheme: evidence from a study in two rural districts

  OOP on health services (Two-part model)
  (1) (2)
Has HI from NHIS -33,821 -30,094
  (20,379)* (20,157)
Chronic health condition 40,605 ---
Bad health (self-assessed) 125,223 ---
Offinso district 12,946 13,032
  (5,205)** (4,362)***
Individual and household characteristics Yes Yes
Assets and living conditions Yes Yes
N 11,617 11,617
  1. Note: Cedi is old Ghana Cedi, 2007 current value; exchange rate: 1 USD = 9,302 Cedi (2007)
  2. Individual and household characteristics include gende, ethnic Akan, age, age squared, if a member in solidarity scheme, household size, and gender, education, and occupation of the household head.
  3. Assets include radio, TV, fridge, telephone, bicycle, motorbike, and car. Household living conditions include whether there is electricity, floor type, type of water, and fuel used for cooking; owning a house, having farmland, and number of rooms in the house.
  4. Figures presented are marginal effects of NHIS and their robust standard errors (in parentheses), adjusted for sampling weight and clustering effect at the municipality level. The standard errors are estimated by boostrapping with 200 replications.
  5. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1