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Table 3 Empirical Results - Absolute and Relative β-Convergence

From: Health status convergence at the local level: empirical evidence from Austria

Dependent variable Change SMR Change SMR Males Change SMR Females Change Gender Gap
Method Absolute β Relative β Absolute β Relative β Absolute β Relative β Absolute β Relative β
β-Coefficient -0.517*** (0.016) -0.552*** (0.017) -0.493*** (0.018) -0.617*** (0.019) -0.610*** (0.017) -0.589*** (0.017) -0.792*** (0.018) -0.868*** (0.018)
Education, average   -0.242*** (0.018)   -0.259*** (0.016)   -0.220*** (0.027)   -0.707*** (0.049)
Social attachments   -0.065*** (0.005)   -0.067*** (0.006)   -0.061*** (0.007)   -0.172*** (0.014)
Foreigners, share   -0.004*** (0.001)   -0.006*** (0.001)   -0.004*** (0.001)   -0.012*** (0.003)
Participation rate, share   -0.002*** (0.001)   -0.008*** (0.001)   -0.001 (0.001)   -0.009*** (0.002)
Commuters   0.002*** (0.000)   0.002*** (0.000)   0.001*** (0.000)   0.004*** (0.001)
Genetic 1   -0.035*** (0.006)   -0.020*** (0.007)   -0.046*** (0.008)   0.020 (0.017)
Genetic 2   -0.030*** (0.006)   -0.016** (0.007)   -0.039*** (0.008)   0.035** (0.017)
Genetic 3   -0.033*** (0.010)   0.004 (0.010)   -0.059*** (0.013)   0.111*** (0.026)
Genetic 4   -0.037*** (0.010)   -0.021* (0.011)   -0.047*** (0.013)   0.012 (0.027)
Constant 3.204*** (0.114) 3.962*** (0.131) 3.169*** (0.130) 4.970*** (0.178) 3.696*** (0.115) 3.917*** (0.123) 4.588*** (0.110) 6.575*** (0.182)
N 2381 2381 2381 2381 2381 2381 2324 2324
R 2 0.297 0.395 0.239 0.347 0.350 0.423 0.467 0.530
  1. Notes: The first value reports regression Coefficients, standard errors are reported in parentheses. *, **, *** denote 10%, 5% and 1% significance levels. Regressions are weighted by community size (population). For the variables „Education, average" and „Participation rate, share" gender-specific values were used for gender-specific mortality convergence. The four categories for genetic structures are dummy variables following the study by [46], where the region III (North and East of Lower Austria, Vienna, Burgenland) is the reference region.