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Table 5 Cross-country comparison of progressivity indices (distributional incidence of health care financing)

From: Who pays for health care in Ghana?

Country Year Financing mechanisms Total financing
   Direct tax Indirect tax NHI/SHI contributions OOP or direct payments  
Africa       
Ghana 2005/2006 0.202 0.057 0.144 -0.068 0.071
South Africa 2005/2006 - - - -0.0259 0.065
Asian countries       
Bangladesh 1999/2000 0.552 0.111 - 0.219 0.214
Thailand 2002 0.510 0.182 0.180 0.091 0.197
Phillippines 1999 0.381 0.002 0.205 0.139 0.163
Malaysia 1998/1999 0.395 -0.078 0.081 0.104 0.186
Taiwan 2000 0.244 0.040 -0.075 -0.079 -0.029
Sri-Lanka 1996/1997 0.569 -0.010 - 0.069 0.085
Indonesia 2001 0.196 0.074 0.306 0.176 0.173
China 2000 0.152 0.040 0.235 -0.017 0.040
Nepal 1995/1996 0.144 0.114 - 0.053 0.063
Japan 1998 0.100 -0.223 -0.042 -0.269 -0.069
OECD countries       
Portugal 1980 0.279 0.079 0.277 -0.158 0.063
The Netherlands 1987 0.185 -0.009 -0.002 -0.059 -0.034
Spain 1980 0.170 0.023 -0.063 0.016 -0.023
Italy 1987 0.054 0.001 0.028 -0.004 0.022
USA 1981 0.162 -0.174 -0.035 -0.387 -0.145
UK 1985 0.131 -0.059 0.043 -0.190 0.032
Ireland 1987 0.250 -0.120 0.110 -0.070 0.034
  1. Source: (Ataguba, McIntyre 2009 [1]; Wagstaff, van Doorslaer et al. 1999 [26]; O'Donnell, van Doorslaer et al. 2008 [8]); Authors own calculations for Ghana