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Table 3 Cumulative shares of health payments by consumption expenditure quintile, Ghana (GLSS 2005/2006 & SHIELD 2008)

From: Who pays for health care in Ghana?

Per capita Household (HH) Expenditure Quintile Per capita HH Expend GLSS 2005/2006 Data SHIELD data 2008
   Direct taxes (A) Indirect taxes (B) (C) Out-of-pocket Payment Total financing of A, B and C  
   Personal Inc tax Corp Inc tax∞ Direct tax VAT± Import duty Fuel levy Kerosene levy Indirect tax    NHI contributions
Poorest 20% (Standard error) 5.53%
(0.096)
1.25%*
(0.208)
3.38%*
(0.807)
1.99%*
(0.271)
3.26%*
(0.931)
4.02%*
(0.496)
6.43%*
(0.197)
16.76%*
(0.376)
4.07%*
(0.570)
6.92%
(1.810)
4.33%
(-0.88)
2.91%*
(0.371)
Poorest 40% (Standard error) 15.64%
(0.2371)
6.36%*
(1.616)
10.70%*
(2.469)
7.85%*
(1.294)
8.91%*
(1.930)
11.48%*
(1.411)
17.97%*
(0.425)
37.82%*
(0.594)
11.34%*
(1.330)
19.36%
(2.758)
12.85%
(-1.79)
10.06%*
(0.994)
Poorest 60% (Standard error) 30.38%
(0.4288)
13.01%*
(1.865)
23.58%
(4.962)
16.66%*
(1.910)
19.42%*
(4.399)
22.04%*
(2.691)
33.88%*
(0.676)
60.49%*
(0.685)
22.85%*
(2.758)
37.72%
(4.647)
25.74%
(-3.11)
19.31%*
(1.344)
Poorest 80% (Standard error) 51.64%
(0.6813)
27.84%*
(2.651)
44.05%
(8.462)
33.43%*
(3.131)
53.54%
(9.624)
39.78%*
(4.851)
54.60%*
(0.960)
81.80%*
(0.630)
49.47%
(5.574)
57.98%
(6.395)
46.96%
(-5.03)
38.42%*
(2.134)
Test of Dominance-Against 45% line - - - - - - - - - - - -
-Against Lorenz C   -   - -   + + -   - -
Concentration index/Gini coeff 0.424 0.680 0.522 0.625 0.473 0.552 0.383 0.016 0.481 0.354 0.487 0.567
(Robust SE) (0.019) (0.040) (0.087) (0.037) (0.074) (0.038) (0.014) (0.013) (0.041) (0.059) (0.046) (0.031)
(p-value) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Kakwani index   0.256 0.098 0.202 0.049 0.129 -0.041 -0.408 0.057 -0.070 0.064 0.143
(Robust SE)   (0.112) (0.207) (0.101) (0.144) (0.082) (0.036) (0.034) (0.081) (0.093) (0.092) (0.074)
(P-value)   (0.022) (0.632) (0.046) (0.733) (0.115) (0.261) (0.000) (0.477) (0.463) (0.329) (0.051)
  1. Source: Author;
  2. Note: For shares: Bold indicates significant difference from population share (5%)
  3. * indicates significant difference from expenditure share (5%)
  4. (Standard errors for concentration and Kakwani indexes are robust to heteroskedasticity and within cluster correlation)
  5. ∞ Assumption is that corporate tax is distributed equally (50/50) across households (based on reported consumption of manufactured goods) and shareholders (based on receipt of dividends) ** NHIL: National Health insurance levy (2.5% of social security of formal workers)
  6. # Dominance test (- indicates the 45% degree line/Lorenz curve dominates the concentration curve: + indicates concentration curve dominates 45%-degreeline/Lorenz curve. Blank indicates non dominance. ± NHIL has same results as that of VAT