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Table 3 Cumulative shares of health payments by consumption expenditure quintile, Ghana (GLSS 2005/2006 & SHIELD 2008)

From: Who pays for health care in Ghana?

Per capita Household (HH) Expenditure Quintile Per capita HH Expend GLSS 2005/2006 Data SHIELD data 2008
   Direct taxes (A) Indirect taxes (B) (C) Out-of-pocket Payment Total financing of A, B and C  
   Personal Inc tax Corp Inc tax∞ Direct tax VAT± Import duty Fuel levy Kerosene levy Indirect tax    NHI contributions
Poorest 20% (Standard error) 5.53% (0.096) 1.25%* (0.208) 3.38%* (0.807) 1.99%* (0.271) 3.26%* (0.931) 4.02%* (0.496) 6.43%* (0.197) 16.76%* (0.376) 4.07%* (0.570) 6.92% (1.810) 4.33% (-0.88) 2.91%* (0.371)
Poorest 40% (Standard error) 15.64% (0.2371) 6.36%* (1.616) 10.70%* (2.469) 7.85%* (1.294) 8.91%* (1.930) 11.48%* (1.411) 17.97%* (0.425) 37.82%* (0.594) 11.34%* (1.330) 19.36% (2.758) 12.85% (-1.79) 10.06%* (0.994)
Poorest 60% (Standard error) 30.38% (0.4288) 13.01%* (1.865) 23.58% (4.962) 16.66%* (1.910) 19.42%* (4.399) 22.04%* (2.691) 33.88%* (0.676) 60.49%* (0.685) 22.85%* (2.758) 37.72% (4.647) 25.74% (-3.11) 19.31%* (1.344)
Poorest 80% (Standard error) 51.64% (0.6813) 27.84%* (2.651) 44.05% (8.462) 33.43%* (3.131) 53.54% (9.624) 39.78%* (4.851) 54.60%* (0.960) 81.80%* (0.630) 49.47% (5.574) 57.98% (6.395) 46.96% (-5.03) 38.42%* (2.134)
Test of Dominance-Against 45% line - - - - - - - - - - - -
-Against Lorenz C   -   - -   + + -   - -
Concentration index/Gini coeff 0.424 0.680 0.522 0.625 0.473 0.552 0.383 0.016 0.481 0.354 0.487 0.567
(Robust SE) (0.019) (0.040) (0.087) (0.037) (0.074) (0.038) (0.014) (0.013) (0.041) (0.059) (0.046) (0.031)
(p-value) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Kakwani index   0.256 0.098 0.202 0.049 0.129 -0.041 -0.408 0.057 -0.070 0.064 0.143
(Robust SE)   (0.112) (0.207) (0.101) (0.144) (0.082) (0.036) (0.034) (0.081) (0.093) (0.092) (0.074)
(P-value)   (0.022) (0.632) (0.046) (0.733) (0.115) (0.261) (0.000) (0.477) (0.463) (0.329) (0.051)
  1. Source: Author;
  2. Note: For shares: Bold indicates significant difference from population share (5%)
  3. * indicates significant difference from expenditure share (5%)
  4. (Standard errors for concentration and Kakwani indexes are robust to heteroskedasticity and within cluster correlation)
  5. ∞ Assumption is that corporate tax is distributed equally (50/50) across households (based on reported consumption of manufactured goods) and shareholders (based on receipt of dividends) ** NHIL: National Health insurance levy (2.5% of social security of formal workers)
  6. # Dominance test (- indicates the 45% degree line/Lorenz curve dominates the concentration curve: + indicates concentration curve dominates 45%-degreeline/Lorenz curve. Blank indicates non dominance. ± NHIL has same results as that of VAT