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Table 4 The Influence of Demographic Characteristics, Food Store Access, Perceived Quality of Community Food Environment, Alternative Food Sources, and Eating Behaviors on Food Security, Using Multinomial Logit Estimates for Household, Adult, and Child Food Insecure as Compared to Food Secure for Participants

From: Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

  Household Adult Child
  Food Insecure Food Insecure Food Insecure
Independent Variables Coefficient OR1 Coefficient OR1 Coefficient OR1
  (SE)   (SE)   (SE)  
Demographic characteristics       
   Nativity (Mexico-born) 0.102 1.11 0.931** 2.54 0.758** 2.13
  (0.339)   (0.337)   (0.258)  
   Household composition -0.072 0.93 -0.179 0.84 0.244** 1.28
  (0.119)   (0.118)   (0.086)  
   Household income2       
≤75% FPL 0.245 1.28 0.796* 2.22 0.341 1.41
  (0.385)   (0.377)   (0.288)  
76%-100% FPL -0.321 0.72 0.139 1.15 -1.240** 0.29
  (0.626)   (0.553)   (0.500)  
>100% FPL -0.033 0.97 -0.221 0.80 -2.275* 0.10
  (0.976)   (0.843)   (1.113)  
   Employment status3       
Spouse or partner -0.090 0.91 1.497*** 4.47 1.374*** 3.95
unemployed (0.379)   (0.437)   (0.289)  
Spouse or partner 1.414** 4.11 2.328*** 10.26 1.055** 2.87
employed part-time (0.482)   (0.545)   (0.423)  
Food assistance programs       
   SNAP participant4 1.085** 2.96 0.588 1.80 -0.012 0.99
  (0.363)   (0.324)   (0.255)  
   School lunch program 0.025 1.03 -1.566*** 0.21 -0.764** 0.47
  (0.361)   (0.365)   (0.269)  
Food store access       
   Distance to store where 0.073 1.08 0.177** 1.19 0.089 1.09
most groceries are purchased (0.070)   (0.059)   (0.047)  
Quality of food environment       
   Little variety in types of 0.952 2.59 0.682 1.98 1.200** 3.32
foods in community (0.561)   (0.540)   (0.416)  
   Fruits and vegetables -0.005 0.99 0.710 2.03 1.109** 3.03
not fresh where shop (0.625)   (0.581)   (0.473)  
   Fruits and vegetables 1.219*** 3.38 0.802* 2.23 0.364 1.44
expensive where shop (0.362)   (0.351)   (0.295)  
Alternative food sources       
   Purchase prepared food -0.425 0.65 -1.065** 0.34 -1.094*** 0.33
from neighbor or friend (0.386)   (0.383)   (0.283)  
Eating behaviors       
   Weekly frequency of -0.395* 0.67 -0.055 0.95 0.024 1.02
fast-food meals (0.179)   (0.140)   (0.111)  
(N = 610) χ2 (df = 45) = 279.76 Pseudo R2 = 0.185       
  1. 1 Odds ratio
  2. 2 Referent group: participants who did not provide income data (n = 155)
  3. 3 Referent group: spouse or partner employed full-time
  4. 4 SNAP = Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamp Program) Statistically significant: *p≤0.05** p≤0.01***p≤0.001