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Table 3 Description of Participants' Access and Mobility, Quality of Food Environment, Eating Behaviors, and Alternative Food Sources by Food Security Status

From: Association of Household and Community Characteristics with Adult and Child Food Insecurity among Mexican-Origin Households in Colonias along the Texas-Mexico Border

  All (n= 610) Food Secure (n= 135) Household Insecure (n= 74) Adult Insecure (n= 102) Child Insecure (n= 299)
Access and mobility      
   Own car 70.7 77.0 73.0 62.7 69.9
   Car available during day 69.2 68.1 62.2 67.6 71.9
   Other transportation      
Friend 8.2 8.1 2.7 9.8 9.0
Neighbor 23.8 8.1 10.8 25.5 33.4***
Relative 63.4 37.0 33.8 67.6 81.3***
   Charge for transportation1 14.8 10.9 25.9 11.5 15.4
   Store where buy most of groceries      
Distance2 10.0 ± 2.2 9.3 ± 2.8 9.8 ± 1.5 10.2 ± 2.7 9.6 ± 3.0
  (10) (10) (10) (10) (10)
Ride with friend or family 29.5 21.5 27.0 39.2 30.4
Type of main store      
Supermarket 62.3 74.1 78.4 61.8 53.2***
Supercenter or mass merchandiser 12.9 11.8 10.8 12.7 14.0
Frequency      
≥ 1 time/week 62.9 71.1 50.0 59.8 63.5
Every two weeks 27.5 17.0 44.6 27.4 28.1
Type of 2nd store      
Supermarket 15.3 7.4 20.3 13.7 18.1*
Small grocery store 13.4 26.7 24.3 10.8 5.7***
Supercenter or mass merchandiser 63.4 52.6 50.0 70.6 69.2***
Frequency      
≥ 1 time/week 61.1 58.5 43.2 61.8 66.6**
Every two weeks 26.6 23.7 36.5 28.4 24.7
   Weekly expenditures for 95.3 ± 56.8 91.7 ± 54.8 97.0 ± 47.1 88.4 ± 58.5 98.8 ± 59.1
groceries3 (80) (80) (100) (75) (80)
Quality of food environment      
   Community food resource      
Little variety in types of foods 92.5 86.7 91.9 93.1 95.0**
Few grocery stores or supermarkets 93.1 89.6 90.5 93.1 95.3*
Food prices are high 94.4 88.9 94.6 95.1 96.7**
Store where purchase most of groceries      
Fair-to-poor variety of fruits and vegetables 10.2 8.1 14.9 7.8 10.7
Poor freshness of fruits and vegetables 11.3 5.9 8.1 8.8 15.4**
Poor quality of fruits and vegetables 17.9 7.4 18.9 17.6 22.4***
Spotty 5.4 2.2 6.8 2.9 7.4*
Soft 7.4 3.0 8.1 8.8 8.7
Overripe 13.9 4.4 10.8 11.8 19.7***
Fruits and vegetables expensive 29.0 18.5 45.9 33.3 28.1
Eating behaviors      
   Daily servings of fruit 1.9 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 0.7 2.0 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 0.9
  (2) (2) (2) (2) (2)
   Daily servings of vegetables 1.5 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.0 1.6 ± 0.9 1.5 ± 0.9
  (1) (2) (1.5) (1) (1)
   Daily servings of sugar-sweetened beverages 1.7 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 1.8 1.6 ± 1.5 1.8 ± 1.8 1.7 ± 1.5
  (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)
   Fast food meals      
Weekly frequency at 1.1 ± 1.1 1.4 ± 1.5 0.7 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 1.1 1.0 ± 0.9
fast food restaurant (1) (1) (1) (1) (1)
Weekly frequency 0.7 ± 0.9 0.8 ± 1.1 0.5 ± 0.8 0.8 ± 1.1 0.8 ± 0.9
bring home to eat (0) (0.5) (0) (0) (1)
   Weekly frequency eat 5.0 ± 3.2 3.7 ± 2.3 4.1 ± 2.5 5.7 ± 3.8 5.6 ± 3.2***
pinto or black beans (5) (3) (3.5) (7) (7)
   Weekly frequency eat 3.2 ± 2.8 2.7 ± 1.2 3.0 ± 1.7 3.8 ± 4.0 3.3 ± 2.9
chicken or fish (3) (3) (3) (3) (3)
   Weekly frequency of 4.5 ± 2.9 4.2 ± 2.8 3.9 ± 2.7 5.4 ± 2.4 5.4 ± 2.4***
   regular breakfast meal (7) (4) (3) (7) (7)
Alternative food sources      
   Purchase prepared food from a neighbor or friend 24.9 45.9 25.7 17.6 17.7***
   Purchase food from mobile food vendors 29.7 29.6 20.3 25.5 33.4
   Purchase food from pulga (flea market) 30.7 43.7 31.1 22.5 27.4***
  1. 1 Proportion of participants who receive transportation from friend, neighbor, or relative (n = 420)
  2. 2 Data provided by 592 participants.
  3. 3 Data provided by 604 participants
  4. Statistical significance in trend across categories of increasing food insecurity: *p≤0.05 **p≤0.01 ***p≤0.001
  5. Statistically significant after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons p ≤ 0.001